Cellular cholesterol facilitates the post-entry replication cycle of herpes simplex virus 1. - PubMed - NCBI

 Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for HSV-1 entry (1-3). Treatment of HSV-1-infected Vero cells with methyl beta-cyclodextrin from 2 - 9 hours post-entry reduced plaque numbers. Transport of incoming viral capsids to the nuclear periphery was unaffected by cholesterol reduction suggesting that cell cholesterol is important for the HSV-1 replicative cycle at a stage(s) beyond entry after the arrival of capsids at the nucleus. The synthesis and release of infectious HSV-1 and cell-to-cell spread of infection were all impaired in cholesterol-reduced cells. Propagation of HSV-1 on DHCR24-/- fibroblasts, which lack the desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, resulted in the generation of infectious, extracellular virions (HSVdes) that lack cholesterol and likely contain desmosterol. The specific infectivity (PFU per viral genome) of HSVchol and HSVdes were similar suggesting cholesterol or desmosterol in the HSV envelope support similar levels of infectivity. However, infected DHCR24-/- fibroblasts released ∼1 log less infectious HSVdes and ∼1.5 logs fewer particles compared to release of cholesterol-containing particles (HSVchol) from parental fibroblasts, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol facilitates viral synthesis. Together, the results suggest multiple roles for cholesterol in the HSV-1 replicative cycle.Importance HSV-1 infections are associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations that are of public health importance. Cholesterol is a key player in the complex interaction between viral and cellular factors that allows HSV-1 to enter host cells and establish infection. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for cellular cholesterol in the entry of HSV-1 into target cells. Here, we employ both chemical treatment and cells that are genetically defined to synthesize only desmosterol to demonstrate that cholesterol is important at stages following the initial entry and transport of viral capsids to the nucleus. Viral protein expression, encapsidation of viral genome and the release of mature virions were impacted by the reduction of cellular cholesterol. Cholesterol was also critical for cell-to-cell spread of infection. These findings provide new insights into the cholesterol-dependence of HSV-1 replication.

'via Blog this'

No comments: