Periodontitis involves periodontal tissue destruction and is associated with chronic inflammation and ageing. Periodontitis has recently been recognised as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We showed upregulation of molecules in the AD pathway including amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP), a key gene in AD, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and complement component 1 (q subcomponent, A chain) (C1QA) in periodontitis compared to healthy tissues. Here, we quantitatively analysed the expression levels of APP, IL-1β, and C1QA and determined the localisation of APP in gingival tissues.
Fourteen chronic periodontitis patients and 14 healthy participants were enrolled. Six samples of total RNA from two distinct sites of healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissues from three randomly selected patients were used for microarray analyses, and significant biological pathways in periodontitis were identified. Differential gene expression of APP, IL-1β, and C1QA, which belong to the AD pathway, were analysed with quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using samples from these 14 chronic periodontitis patients and 14 healthy controls. APP localisation was analysed with immunohistochemistry.
APP, IL-1β, and C1QA mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. APP was mainly localised in macrophages in gingival connective tissues underneath the epithelial layers.
An association between AD and periodontitis was detected with microarray and computer-aided data mining analyses. qRT-PCR identified differential gene expression in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue that may be related to AD pathogenesis. Elevated APP, IL-1β, and C1QA transcripts and APP-expressing macrophages in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues were observed, suggesting a relationship between periodontitis and AD pathogenesis.