estrogen metabolites are associated with the diversity and composition
of the fecal microbiome.
Design and Setting:
Outcome Measures and Methods:
metabolites were measured in spot urines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The fecal microbiome was assessed using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. General linear models were used to test for associations of diversity and composition of the fecal microbiome with parent estrogen (estrone + estradiol), total estrogens, and estrogen metabolites and the ratio of estrogen metabolites to parent estrogen, which has been predictive of postmenopausal breast cancer risk in previous studies.
Associations were independent of age, body mass index, and study design factors.