Sublime Microglia: Expanding Roles for the Guardians of the CNS: Cell

Recent findings challenge the concept that microglia solely function in
disease states in the central nervous system (CNS). Rather than simply
reacting to CNS injury, infection, or pathology, emerging lines of
evidence indicate that microglia sculpt the structure of the CNS, refine
neuronal circuitry and network connectivity, and contribute to
plasticity. These physiological functions of microglia in the normal CNS
begin during development and persist into maturity. Here, we develop a
conceptual framework for functions of microglia beyond neuroinflammation
and discuss the rich repertoire of signaling and communication motifs
in microglia that are critical both in pathology and for the normal
physiology of the CNS.

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