At baseline, 391 (64.8%) subjects (348 women, mean age 73.9 ± 6.5) were seropositive for H. pylori. Dementia prevalence was higher in the infected group (5.4% vs 1.4%, P =.02). After 20 years of follow-up, 148 incident cases of dementia were diagnosed. After controlling for age, sex, educational level, apolipoprotein E4 status, cardiovascular risk factors, and Mini-Mental State Examination score, H. pyloriinfection was determined to be a risk factor for developing dementia (hazard ratio = 1.46, P =.04).
This longitudinal population-based study provides additional epidemiological support to the hypothesis of an association between dementia and H. pylori infection, which may enhance neurodegeneration.