Futurity.org – How much fish oil is too much?

As with so many, too much of a good thing can be bad: In this case high doses of fish oil induces severe colitis and colon cancer in mice: Moderation in all things as the saying goes.

Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway.

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)
Image by AJC1 via Flickr
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a neurotropic virus that has been associated with a wide variety of neurologic disorders, including encephalitis, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis. It appears to enter the brain via the nasal route.
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Plant RNAs Found in Mammals | The Scientist

MicroRNAs from plants accumulate in mammalian blood and tissues, where they can regulate gene expression. ( we are not alone)

How Probiotic Yogurt Works | The Scientist

Researchers show that the bacterial species in probiotic, fermented dairy products may alter gene expression and metabolism in native gut microbiota.

McNulty et al., “The Impact of a Consortium of Fermented Milk Strains on the Gut Microbiome of Gnotobiotic Mice and Monozygotic Twins,” Science Translational Medicine, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002701, 2011.

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Maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring

Maternal obesity prior to and during pregancy was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring.
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Microbial communities on skin affect humans' attractiveness to mosquitoes

Cross-reactivity of autoreactive T cells with Myelin basic Protein and viral antigens in patients with MS.

T cells recognizing myelin basic protein  were cross-reactive and could be activated by a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues of HHV-6 or the Epstein-Barr virus
Multiple sclerosis
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Identification of a new plasma biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (Desmesterol)

Desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor, was found to be decreased in AD plasma
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Rare genetic mutations linked to bipolar disorder

The new findings show "convincing" evidence that rare copy number mutations strongly contribute to the development of early onset bipolar disorder.
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Brain cell malfunction in schizophrenia identified

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have discovered that DNA stays too tightly wound in certain brain cells of schizophrenic subjects.

PLoS Medicine: The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

Some Kills
Image via Wikipedia
The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The results demonstrate that toxins in cigarette smoke increase substantially when additives are put in cigarettes, including the level of total particulate matter.
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Diet, nutrient levels linked to cognitive ability, brain shrinkage

New research has found that elderly people with higher levels of several vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids in their blood had better performance on mental acuity tests and less of the brain shrinkage typical of Alzheimer's disease – while "junk food" diets produced just the opposite result.
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New clues as to why some older people may be losing their memory

New research links silent strokes , or small spots of dead brain cells, found in about one out of four older adults to memory loss in the elderly. The study is published in the January 3, 2012, print issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
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PLoS Biology: Gut Bacteria May Override Genetic Protections against Diabetes

Fast-food outlets and walkability in school neighbourhoods predict fatness in boys and height in girls: a Taiwanese population study.


Metagenomic systems biology of the human gut microbiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

microbiome inflammatory bowel disease.

 Childhood obesity
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Dietary flavonoids are neuroprotective through Nrf2-coordinated induction of endogenous cytoprotective proteins.

 Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke and other diseases.The protective effects of flavonoids may be mediated via the transcription factor  Nrf2 which coordinates the induction of endogenous cytoprotective proteins.


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Sharing pathogenetic mechanisms between acute myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease as shown by partially overlapping of gene variant profiles

Integrated Microbial Genomes- Education Site

Genome
Image by TheEverlastingFallout via Flickr
The Integrated Microbial Genomes- Education Site (IMG/EDU) system provides support for training and teaching microbial genome analysis and annotation using specific microbial genomes in the comparative context of all the genomes available in IMG (Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, Vol. 36, Database issue D528-D533).
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Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases.

Populations living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts.


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Beer and Martinis - Just as Effective as Wine for Longevity? - NYTimes.com

Dry Martini
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Beer and Martinis - Just as Effective as Wine for Longevity? - NYTimes.com Many studies have found an association between the moderate consumption of alcohol and increased longevity, and some have found evidence that wine has a more beneficial effect than other alcoholic drinks. Now an analysis in the January issue of The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs suggests that martinis and beer may be just as effective at extending life.
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Quality of mother-toddler relationship linked to teen obesity

Fat May Put Hypothalamus On Fritz - Yahoo! News

More than a third of adults in the U.S. are obese. And many of those already overweight continue to put on even more pounds. Now researchers have a clue why. in the brains of both obese humans and obese rats, neurons around the hypothalamus were damaged by inflammation. High-fat diets have been known to promote inflammation throughout the body, but that usually takes weeks or months to appear. Changes in the brain, however, can happen fast—even within 24 hours. Childhood obesity:
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Mom-Daughter Depression Connected | Medical News and Health Information

Postpartum depression affects children’s social and emotional development. According to this study, Oxytocin, a hormone associated with love and produced naturally in the body, can help protect children from the negative effects of maternal depression.

Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia especially focused on the role of microglia

An accumulating body of evidence point to the significance of neuroinflammation and immunogenetics in schizophrenia

Meta-analysis of genetic and environmental Parkinson's disease models reveals a common role of mitochondrial protection pathways.

Pubmed paper


Parkinson's disease genes risk factors and pathways

New synthetic molecules treat autoimmune disease in mice

A team of Weizmann Institute scientists has turned the tables on an autoimmune disease. In such diseases, including Crohn's and rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's tissues. But the scientists managed to trick the immune systems of mice into targeting one of the body's players in autoimmune processes, an enzyme known as MMP9. The results of their research appear today in Nature Medicine.
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Borna Disease Virus Infects Human Neural Progenitor Cells and Impairs Neurogenesis.

The Bornavirus has been implicated in both  Bipolar disorder  and Schizophrenia 
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U.S. Rolls Out Tough Rules on Coal Plant Pollution: Scientific American

The Obama administration on Wednesday unveiled the first-ever standards to slash mercury emissions from coal-fired plants, a move aimed at protecting public health/The rules will save $90 billion in healthcare costs by 2016 as technology to cut emissions also reduces particulates that can damage hearts and lungs
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Is lead exposure in early life an environmental risk factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological connections and testable hypotheses.

Schizophrenia 

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection Activates the Epstein-Barr Virus Replicative Cycle via a CREB-Dependent Mechanism.

Herpes simplex life cycle

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Treating sleep problems may be important in schizophrenia

Schizophrenia 

Researcher contends multiple sclerosis is not a disease of the immune system

Dr Corthals believes that the primary cause of MS can be traced to transcription factors in cell nuclei that control the uptake, breakdown, and release of lipids (fats and similar compounds) throughout the body. Disruption of these proteins, known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), causes a toxic byproduct of "bad" cholesterol called oxidized LDL to form plaques on the affected tissue. The accumulation of plaque in turn triggers an immune response, which ultimately leads to scarring.
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Immune challenges by viruses result in CNS disease in the absence of the virus in the CNS

The immune response induced in response to a peripheral viral infection can be "mis-recruited" to the brain, where these activated immune cells can then lead to inflammation-induced neuropathology and disease - without the virus infecting the brain.
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Defending the genome from viral integration

 Small, mobile sequences of DNA left over from viruses, called transposons or "jumping genes" because of their ability to move around the genome, pose a significant threat to the genetic integrity and stability of an organism. Considered genetic parasites, these transposable elements are believed to comprise as much as 50 percent of the human genome. Because of the damage transposons can do to an organism's DNA, an immune-like response has evolved to turn off, or silence, the transposons.
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Virgin olive oil & fish fatty acids help prevent acute pancreatitis

More benefits of olive oil & polyunsaturated fatty acids 
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Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 reactivation and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis 

New evidence that bacteria in large intestine have a role in obesity

Childhood obesity:

Sun Prevents Chickenpox? | The Scientist

Sun Prevents Chickenpox? | The Scientist
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Do our medicines boost pathogens?

Scientists of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITG) discovered a parasite that not only had developed resistance against a common medicine, but at the same time had become better in withstanding the human immune system. With some exaggeration: medical practice helped in developing a superbug. For it appears the battle against the drug also armed the bug better against its host. "To our knowledge it is the first time such a doubly armed organism appears in nature", says researcher Manu Vanaerschot, who obtained a PhD for his detective work at ITG and Antwerp University. "It certainly makes you think."
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The Evolution of Drug Resistance | The Scientist

Using whole-genome sequencing to track the evolution of bacteria as they are exposed to ever-increasing levels of antibiotics, researchers have identified some consistent—and potentially practicable—genetic mutations, pointing to new possibilities for conquering resistant bugs
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PLoS ONE: A Blood-Based Screening Tool for Alzheimer's Disease That Spans Serum and Plasma: Findings from TARC and ADNI

The 11 proteins used were : C-reactive protein, adiponectin, pancreatic polypeptide, fatty acid binding protein, interleukin 18, beta 2 microglobulin, tenascin C, T lymphocyte secreted protein I309, factor VII, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1.


Alzheimer's
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MicrobeWorld - Common Oral Bacteria Open the Door to Allow Other Invaders In

Big Corn, Big Sugar in bitter US row on sweetener

Big Corn and Big Sugar are locked in a legal and public relations fight in the US over a plan to change the name of a corn-based sweetener that has a bad name.A lawsuit, which seeks an end to the ads using the term "corn sugar," states that use of the corn syrup increased over 1,000 percent between 1970 and 1990 and that this rise "bears a strong temporal relationship to the growth in American obesity."
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Semen Protein Boosts HIV Transmission | The Scientist

A protein found in semen makes HIV’s job of infecting immune cells easier, according to research published today in Cell Host & Microbe.These are semenogelin fragments forming amyloid fibrils that greatly enhance HIV infection.

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Cholesterol-lowering drugs may reduce mortality for influenza patients

After adjusting for various factors, researchers found that patients not receiving statins were almost twice as likely to die from influenza as those who received the medication.
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Alterations in the gut microbiome of children with severe ulcerative colitis

The richness, evenness, and biodiversity of the gut microbiome were remarkably reduced in children with Ulcerative colitis compared with healthy controls. Children who did not respond to steroids harbored a microbiome that was even less rich than steroid responders.
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Antibody injection promising for diabetes and obesity

(Medical Xpress) -- Researchers at Genetech Inc. in South San Francisco, California, led by molecular biologist Junichiro Sonoda, have discovered that a single injection of antibodies (against fibroblast growth factor  FGF receptors ) into obese diabetic mice provided a marked and sustained improvement in their condition and a reduction in their weight.
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Fungus-induced neurological disease: An underestimated risk for animals and humans?

The mould fungus Penicillium crustosum occurs relatively frequently in food and animal fodder stored in temperate conditions. This mould produces powerful neurotoxins, for example penitrem A, which causes symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from those of other neurological diseases, including epilepsy and impaired motor function.

Researchers identify toxic phthalates in numeruous medicines and supplements

Researchers from Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center (SEC), in collaboration with Harvard School of Public Health, have found numerous prescription and over-the-counter drugs and supplements use certain chemicals called phthalates as inactive ingredients in their products. The findings appear on-line in Environmental Health Perspectives.
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Stopping dementia in its tracks - without drugs

While there is, as yet, no medical treatment that can cure dementia, a new study has shown that it is possible to stop its progress without using drugs.
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Antioxidant has potential in the Alzheimer's fight

Antioxidant has potential in the Alzheimer's fight Risk factors: Alzheimer's :
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Alzheimer's drug candidate may be first to prevent disease progression

Salk scientists develop J147, a synthetic drug shown to improve memory and prevent brain damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Credit: Courtesy of Salk Institute for Biological Studies. The Salk team developed methods for using living neurons grown in laboratory dishes to test whether or not new synthetic compounds were effective at protecting the brain cells against several pathologies associated with brain aging.
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Humans unequipped for high-salt diet, food scientist contends

Humans are physiologically unprepared for the amount of sodium found in manufactured foods in the modern food supply, contributing to the diet-related diseases observed today.

Regulated release of BDNF by cortical oligodendrocytes is mediated through metabotropic glutamate receptors and the PLC pathway.


Regulated release of BDNF by cortical oligodendrocytes is mediated through metabotropic glutamate receptors and the Phospholipase C pathway.

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Unexpected signaling role for foul-smelling hydrogen sulfide in cell response to protein misfolding

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) – the flammable, highly toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs  – plays an important role in the regulation of thge endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway ( the unfolded protein response ) implicated in biological malfunctions linked to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, among others.
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BMC Pediatrics Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

 Autism genes and risk factors
Conclusions
Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change. This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.
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Association of lifestyle and environmental factors with the risk of cancer


It has been well established that certain lifestyle habits relate to the risk of certain cancers (e.g., smoking and lung cancer). In a well-done analysis, the authors estimate the proportion of cancer in the population associated with a variety of lifestyle and environmental factors. They find that smoking has, by far, the largest effect on the risk of cancer, with 19.4% of cancer cases in the UK attributable to tobacco use. A poor diet (less intake of fruits and vegetables and fibre and greater intake of meat and salt), obesity, and alcohol are the next most important factors that relate to cancer, with alcohol being calculated to relate to 4.0% of cancer cases in the UK.
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