New ways of treating Alzheimer’s

Specific gene linked to cold sore susceptibility, study finds

The gene is of unknown function (C21orf91)

Advance toward a breath test to diagnose multiple sclerosis

This animation of a rotating carbon nanotube g...Image via Wikipedia
A cross-reactive array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and single wall carbon nanotube bilayers was designed for the detection of volatile organic compounds (tentatively, hexanal and 5-methyl-undecane) that identify the presence of disease in the exhaled breath of patients with multiple sclerosis.

Detection of Multiple Sclerosis from Exhaled Breath Using Bilayers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

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Successful transmission of a retrovirus depends on the commensal microbiota.

S

Intestinal microbiota promote enteric virus replication and systemic pathogenesis.

Here one microbiome , the bacterial microbiome, influences another:-  in this case the poliovirus and the reovirus, an unrelated enteric virus, whose virulence is affected by antobiotics that destroy the bacteria. Viruses bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and  exploit intestinal microbes for replication and transmission.
Wheels within wheels.
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New findings contradict dominant theory in Alzheimer’s disease - Lund University

It's not too much beta-amyloid that triggers Alzheimer's --- It's too little.................
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Study identifies specific bacteria which precede autoimmune diabetes

A study led by Matej Oresic from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland suggests that autoimmune diabetes is preceded by diminished gut microbial diversity of the Clostridium leptum subgroup, elevated plasma leptin and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
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Antivirals reduce the formation of key Alzheimer's disease molecules in cell cultures acutely infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

Herpes simplex KEGG pathways (including Alzheimer's)

Saving memories with a Shake: The Alzheimer’s Drink -- In Depth Doctor's Interview | Medical News and Health Information

Air & Asthma -- Pollution Changing Your DNA?

Pollution may be affecting asthma in more ways than one: Firstly by directly provoking pulmonary irritation and secondly by promoting epigenetic chnges in our DNA.

Healthy mouth bacteria provide ideal conditions for gum disease

Gum disease is a risk factor for a number of other diseases, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease: When the oral bacterium P. gingivalis was introduced under normal conditions it stimulated the growth of normal bugs leading to a large increase in the number of those organisms already there. P. gingivalis was introduced at very low levels but had a major affect on both the immune system and the inflammatory system.
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Natural intestinal flora involved in the emergence of multiple sclerosis, study finds

The microbiome influenced the induction and severity of pathology in this mouse model of multiple sclerosis by modulating the immune system. Shotgun sequencing of the multiple sclerosis microbiome should help to identify benign and malevolent bacterial species.

Multiple sclerosis genes and risk factor
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The Epigenetics of Poverty | The Daily Scan | GenomeWeb

Airway Abnormality, A Possible Link To Autism

How Probiotic Yogurt Works | The Scientist

What happens to your gut bacteria when you eat a yoghurt? | Not Exactly Rocket Science | Discover Magazine

Are Gut Bacteria In Charge? : Discovery News

Found in the developing brain: Mental health risk genes and gender differences

Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Compounds are Explored

GarlicImage via Wikipedia
Investigating antibacterial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy.Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Aug;77(15):5257-69.
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Environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) can affect newborn brain, mouse study shows

Bisphenol A is found in plastics including baby feeding bottles:  In Europe and Canada, BPA use is banned in baby bottles.

Potential new drug target could stop debilitating effects of multiple sclerosis

This concerns preventing granzyme B entry by blocking the mannose-6-phosphate receptor:
Granzyme B is found in multiple sclerosis lesions and promotes apoptosis . 
 
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Suspected anti-Parkinson's gene spotted in 23andMe database - FierceBiomarkers

Simple gut hormone combo makes our brains think we're full

The gut hormones peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1 , which are both released into circulation after we eat play a role in appetite control

Antidepressant linked to developmental brain abnormalities in rodents

Saliva can explain children’s weak immune defense, Swedish research shows

One in five medical journal articles include honorary and ghost authors, study finds

A review of candidate urinary biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder.

Putative autism biomarkers were identified that could be categorized according to the key theories that exist regarding the etiology of autism: gastrointestinal factors, immune dysregulation, heavy metal toxicity, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and oxidative stress.

Autism risk factors


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Hypothalamic mitochondrial dysfunction associated with anorexia in the anx/anx mouse.

Anorexia risk factors

HPA looks at risk of fish pedicures - Health News - NHS Choices

nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Geoscientists Find Key to Why Some Patients Get Infections from Cardiac Implants - US National Science Foundation (NSF)

Bacterial cells have gene mutations that allow them to 'stick' to the devices

Many Alzheimer's patients get drugs with opposing effects

Fish oil supplements boost mental performance: study

Mood, cognition and sleep patterns improve in Alzheimer's patients after cataract surgery

Researchers at Tenon Hospital, Paris, France, found that patients with mild Alzheimer's disease whose vision improved after cataract surgery also showed improvement in cognitive ability, mood, sleep patterns and other behaviors. Lead researcher Brigitte Girard, MD, will discuss her team's results today at the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2011 Annual Meeting.

You are what you eat: Low-fat diet with fish oil slows growth of prostate cancer cells / UCLA Newsroom

Antidepressant linked to developmental brain abnormalities in rodents

Unraveling the mysteries of the natural killer within us

Could additives in hot dogs affect incidence of colon cancer?

A hot dog.Image via Wikipedia
The addition of vitamin C or a related compound, erythorbate, and the reduced amount of nitrite added in hot dogs, mandated in 1978, have been accompanied by a steep drop in the death rate from colon cancer, but the colon cancer rate has changed little since this:
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High fizzy soft drink consumption linked to violence among teens

Teen sleep deprivation related to weight gain

A novel oral treatment for leishmaniasis has potential to save thousands of lives

A tropically stable liquid therapy for leishmaniasis, a disease known as the Baghdad boil, shows a significant decrease in infection after less than a week of treatment. This research is being presented at the 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Washington, D.C., Oct. 23 – 27.
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The otologic microbiome:

The otologic microbiome: a study of the bacterial microbiota in a pediatric patient with chronic serous otitis media using 16SrRNA gene-based pyrosequencing.

We detected a total of 17 unique bacterial families, with 9, 9, and 12 bacterial families from the middle ear, tonsil, and adenoid specimens, respectively. Pseudomonadaceae dominated the middle ear microbiota at 82.7% relative abundance, whereas Streptococcaceae dominated the tonsil microbiota at 69.2%. Multiple bacteria, including Pseudomonadaceae, Streptococcaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, and Pasteurellaceae, dominated the adenoid microbiota. Overlap between the middle ear and the tonsil microbiota was minimal. In contrast, the adenoid microbiota encompassed bacteria detected from middle ear and tonsil.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bacterial community analysis using pyrosequencing analysis revealed diverse, previously unknown bacterial communities in a set of pediatric middle ear, tonsil, and adenoid specimens. Our findings suggest that the adenoid may be a source site for both the middle ear and tonsil microbiota. An ecological framework is appropriate in comparative analysis of microbiota from nonsterile body sites.
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Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action.

Metabolomic profiling 

Twenty marker metabolites contributing to the complete separation between post-treatment and pre-treatment patients were identified, with myo-inositol, uric acid and tryptophan showing the maximum combined classification performance. 

Schizophrenia
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First Ebola-like virus native to Europe discovered

Sunshine vitamin may cut diabetes risk (Vitamin D)

Semen Clusterin Is a Novel DC-SIGN Ligand. [J Immunol. 2011] - PubMed - NCBI

DC-SIGN (CD209) is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages. It is involved in the innate immune system and recognizes diverse pathogens ranging from parasites to viruses.
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Epigenetic Effects of Childhood | The Scientist

Could a probiotic be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease?

Yes

GeneNews' Sentinel Principle® Used to Discover New Blood Based Biomarkers for Schizophrenia - FierceBiotech

Several genes that were dysregulated in both individuals with schizophrenia and their siblings related to nucleosome and histone structure and function, suggesting a potential epigenetic mechanism underlying the risk state for the disorder. Nonpsychotic siblings also displayed some differences from comparison subjects that were not found in their affected siblings, suggesting that the dysregulation of some genes in peripheral blood may be indicative of underlying protective factors. 
Here's the paper:
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Study proves new technology kills bacteria

Results from a comprehensive multi-site clinical trial demonstrated that the use of antimicrobial copper surfaces in intensive care unit rooms reduced the amount of bacteria in the rooms by 97 percent and resulted in a 41 percent reduction in the hospital acquired infection rate. According to researchers, this study is one of the first to demonstrate the value of a passive infection control intervention, one that does not rely on staff or patients remembering to take action. The results will be presented on Friday, October 21 at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in Boston.

GSK malaria vaccine works in major Phase III trial - FierceVaccines

Longevity Shown for First Time to Be Inherited via a Non-DNA Mechanism: Scientific American

PLoS ONE: Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study

Rituximab targets and destroy B cells. The B cells are eliminated within weeks , but autoantibodies typically survive in the body for another two or three months. "Washing out these antibodies is the most probable explanation for the time lag in benefits," acccording to the authors.
UK ME Association.
Chronic fatigue genes and risk factors 
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IMGENEX Webinar |Engineered Reporter Cell Lines for TLR, Innate Immunity, Inflammation and Immune Signaling

Simple representation of the toll-like recepto...Image via Wikipedia
IMGENEX has engineered TLR/NF-kB SEAPorter™HEK 293 cell lines- each line contains a human TLR gene and a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene under control of an NF-kB response element. A RAW/NF-kB/SEAPorter™ cell line has also been developed for murine TLR ligand activation studies. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the IL-1 Receptor family and are key signaliing sensors and mediators of host defense and autoimmune responses. TLR recognition of microbial molecules as pathogen associated molecular patterns or PAMPs or endogenous damage associated molecular patterns or DAMPs, and TLR- linked adaptors initiate innate immune signals by sequentially recruiting downstream signaling mediators and triggering NF-kB pathways.
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Pollutants linked to 450 percent increase in risk of birth defects in rural China

The pollutants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , the byproducts of burning fossil fuels such as oil and coal and the pesticides endosulfan and lindane.
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Research proposes common link between autism, diabetes

Double duty: Anti-HIV topical gel also protects against herpes virus

Genetic variant and autoantibodies linked to having a child with autism - UC Davis Health System Newsroom

A study by researchers at UC Davis has found that pregnant women with a particular gene variation are more likely to produce autoantibodies to the brains of their developing fetuses and that the children of these mothers are at greater risk of later being diagnosed with autism.
Autism genes risk factors and pathwys


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Breastmilk a natural stem cell therapy

Human breastmilk has the potential to help people suffering from diseases including Parkinson's disease and diabetes, according to a researcher at The University of Western Australia.

Phage-bacteria relationships and CRISPR elements revealed by a metagenomic survey of the rumen microbiome.

CRISPR elements are a sort of bacterial immune system - bacteria have to defend themselves against pathogens too.  

28,000 different viral genotypes obtained from each environment. The majority (∼78%) of sequences did not match any previously described virus. 

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Analyzing the sheep genome for parasite resistance

Exploring Human Host-Microbiome Interactions in Health and Disease

This new Wellcome Trust Scientific Conference will bring together leading scientists from the fields of microbiology, ecology, immunology, gastroenterology and paediatrics to discuss the latest developments in this fast developing field. Gut microflora play important roles in how we derive energy from our diet and how we store this energy. Recent studies have revealed the extraordinary complexity of the gut microbial ecology and its network connectivity to the metabolic regulation of important pathways in the host. Microbiome abnormalities have been associated with many non-infectious diseases including inflammatory bowel conditions, colonic cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and obesity and autism. Gut microbial activity also plays an important role in drug metabolism and toxicity. Understanding the role of the microbiome will offer new insights into major disease processes and discovery of new therapeutic strategies that either target the microbiome directly or use this information in new stratified medicine approaches. Abstract deadline: 12 March 2012 | Registration deadline: 9 April 2012
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Teens’ Work Hours Increase MS Risk? | Medical News and Health Information

Heart disease linked to evolutionary changes that may have protected early mammals from trauma

Cellphones exceed U.S. FCC exposure limits by as much as double for children, study finds

Top 7 in Immunology | The Scientist

Researcher says banned pregnancy drug impacts fetal immune system

(Medical Xpress) -- A synthetic estrogen—diethylstilbestrol (DES)—prescribed to women in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to prevent miscarriages had serious, untoward effects in daughters of these women, including the development of a rare type of cancer of the uterus. There has been renewed interest in light of an Oct. 6 report in the New England Journal of Medicine documenting lifelong health complications facing daughters of women given DES.

Fruit and vegetable compound offers hope against gum disease

(Medical Xpress) -- Scientists at the University of Birmingham have found that supplementing the diet with a special combination of fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrates may help to combat chronic gum disease when combined with conventional dental therapy.
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Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) monitors commensal bacteria and induces an immune response that prevents experimental colitis

Voxelwise gene-wide association study (vGeneWAS): multivariate gene-based association testing in 731 elderly subjects

This is quite a feat
........ ...................a gene-based method for associating the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18,044 genes across 31,662 voxels of the whole brain in 731 elderly subjects
..........or over half the genome and 30,000 endophenotypes

Other Imaging genetics reviews from the Thompson Lab 
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Sugar-free sweets and drinks 'may damage dental enamel' - Health News - NHS Choices

Sugar-free sweets and drinks 'may damage dental enamel' - Health News - NHS Choices

Fruit and vegetables 'counter heart risk genes' - Health News - NHS Choices

Discovery helps explain progression of Lou Gehrig's disease, offers new therapy approach

New research links common RNA modification to obesity

This concerns methylation of the FTO gene linked to obesity
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Skin's immune peacekeepers discovered

Langerhans cells (not the ones in the pancreas)  are skin dendritic cells that play an important role in pathogen defence.

Langerhans cells are precommitted to immune tolerance induction  from PNAS


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Cellular Origins of Giant Viruses? | The Scientist

IIntrathecal human herpesvirus 6 antibodies in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases presenting as oligoclonal bands inCSF

If it's not one virus it's another - in this case the ubiquitous HHV-6

Low birthweight infants five times more likely to have autism, study finds

Autism :

Broccoli-based compound beats drug resistance in lung disease (COPD)

Studies show that broccoli may help in the pre...Image via Wikipedia
The Broccoli-based compound is sulforaphane which has a number of interesting effects, stunting the growth of Helicobacter pylori and acting as an anticancer agent.
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Nourishing protein (VEGF) slows brain disease (Spinocerebellar ataxia)

Spinocerebellar ataxiaImage via Wikipedia
This is spinocerebellar ataxia , the gene for which (ataxin-1) controls VEGF: VEGF in turn ameliorates symptoms in a mouse model of ataxia
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Independent research teams identify first infectious agent associated with colon cancer

This is a type of Fusobacterium which may well be a cause of colon cancer, as Helicobacter pylori is a cause of gastric cancer: The Human papilloma virus causes cervical cancer and others have also been linked to cancer (Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus  the  Merkel cell polyomavirus , he hepatitis C virus as well as human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1).
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Vitamin D status and antibody levels to common viruses in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis.

There appears to be a complex interaction between vitamin D levels and those of antibodies to various viruses in paediatric multiple sclerosis
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Temporal relationship between environmental influenza A and Epstein-Barr viral infections and high multiple sclerosis relapse occurrence.


  When influenza or Epstein-Barr viral infections were higher in the general population, the incidence of multiple sclerosis relapses also increased.
 Multiple sclerosis genes risk factors and pathways
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Another clue to how obesity works

Elevated Hypothalamic TCPTP in Obesity Contributes to Cellular Leptin Resistance.

(protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2)

Intruder detected: Raise the alarm!

Feedback loop helps your gut manage its helpful bacteria

First genome-wide association study for dengue identifies candidate susceptibility genes

Genetic Factors Influence Serological Measures of Common Infections.

The authors tested heritability for 13 common infections (Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, adenovirus 36 , hepatitis A virus, influenza A and B, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2, human herpesvirus-6, and the varicella zoster virus. Different genetic factors  contribute to different infection.
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Beneficial gut bacteria can become virus collaborators | Not Exactly Rocket Science | Discover Magazine

The Poliovirus attaches itself to lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell walls and hitches a ride around the body: Antibiotics can reduce poliovirus infection in mice by killing the bacteria. Many more viruses could exploit this pathway.
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Increased prevalence of Chlamydophila DNA in post-mortem brain frontal cortex from patients with schizophrenia

Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Herpesvidae family viruses in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a case-control study.

This study provides additional evidence that infection with T gondii and the cytomegalovirus may be associated with some cases of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

Endogenous morphine-like compound immunoreactivity increases in parkinsonism.

Dopamine is a potential precursor for the synthesis of morphine-like compounds  : Despite this, the synthesis of such compound is increased in the Parkinson's disease brain. 

Hormone Fights Fat With Fat | Medical News and Health Information

Gut bacteria may affect whether a statin drug lowers cholesterol

.............epistasis on statins
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Pesticide pollution in European waterbodies: List of chemicals to be monitored should be updated immediately, experts urge

Pesticides have been linked to Parkinson's disease and others: Many others , as well as other pollutants, drugs and antibiotics, that we throw down the sink, may also contribute to this growing problem .

Eating green veggies improves immune defenses

First physical evidence bilingualism delays onset of Alzheimer's symptoms

Reversing sickle cell anemia by turning on fetal hemoglobin

The histone acetyltransferase CLOCK is an essential component of the herpes simplex virus 1 transcriptome that includes TFIID, ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22.

or ......... how a virus can disrupt circadian rhythm -

Eating your greens can change the effect of your genes on heart disease

................vegistasis ?

Gut commensal bacteria direct a protective immune response against Toxoplasma gondii.

T.Gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia and other diseases: When treated with broad spectrum antibiotics to kill the intestinal flora, T.Gondii infection in mice worsened and commensal bacteria exerted a protective effect against infection.
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Alterations in diversity of the oral microbiome in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

New 'genome mining' technique streamlines discovery from nature

Melatonin delays onset, reduces deaths in mouse model of Huntington’s disease

Melatonin is a serotonin derivative See Kegg: Type 1 melatonin receptors are found on mitochondria, which supplies energy for the cell: These are depleted in  Huntington's brain samples.
This pathway links in with the kynurenate pathway, also implicated  in Huntington's disease.
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NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements, October 11, 2011 News Release - National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Peanut Allergy Turned Off by Tricking Immune System : Northwestern University Newscenter

The peanut tolerance was achieved by attaching peanut proteins onto blood cells and reintroducing them to the body -- an approach that ultimately may be able to target more than one food allergy at a time.
It may well be relavant to other food allergy problems - like gluten inteolerance which has been linked to several conditions (ADHD, and schizophrenia for example).
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Identification of the Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein as a Cellular Receptor for Rubella Virus

The rubella virus (german measles) has been implicated in a number of diseases, including autism, schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis: All of these are demyelinating conditions and this viral receptor (myelin ologodendrocyte glycoprotein) is expressed on the oligodendrocyte cell surface and on myelin sheaths.

Heart Disease Has Its Own Clock - Science News

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Pigs, Sheep, Goats, and Cattle from Grenada and Carriacou, West Indies.

Mutant presenilin-1 deregulated peripheral immunity exacerbates Alzheimer-like pathology.

When mutant presenilin was transfected into bone marrow cells, the brain pathology of mutant APP or APP/presenilin transgenic mice worsened.

Related articles
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IImmunolocalization of influenza A virus and markers of inflammation in the human Parkinson's disease brain.

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owards resolving the transcription factor network controlling myelin gene expression.

A nice genomics/bioinformatics study on myelin related genes

Chagas disease may be a threat in South Texas, says researcher