Parents' stress leaves lasting marks on children’s genes, researchers find

This is about epigenetics, but perhaps not as one might expect, effects on the developing foetus, but on young children. Parental depression, family-expressed anger, parenting stress and financial stress leads to methylation changes in the children's genes.



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Association of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with multiple sclerosis in Sardinian patients.

Multiple sclerosis genes pathways and risk factors

Viruses in the human gut show dynamic response to diet

Depiction of the human body and bacteria that ...Image via Wikipedia
Viruses and pathogens of the microbiome involved in human diseases


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Natural Anti-Oxidant Deserts Aging Body - USC News

Animal mitochondrion diagram enImage via Wikipedia
The protein involcve is LON protease , whose activity declines with age. It normally clears and repairs proteins damaged by  oxidative stress in mitochondria and helps make new mitochondria.
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Children whose diet contained olive oil had a lower likelihood of increasing their body mass index Z-score over 1 year.

Olives in olive oil.Image via Wikipedia
The benefits of olive oil seem to appear at both ends of the age spectrum.

Childhood obesity genes and risk factors

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Brain cannabinoid CB(2) receptors modulate cocaine's actions in mice.

It was generally though that this subtype of cannabinoid receptor (CNR2) was specific to macrophages and not involved in CNS effects. Not any more. This form has also been genetically implicated in bipolar disorder Minocci  et al, 2011 and schizophrenia   Ishiguro et al, 2010

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MicrobeWorld - Antibiotics: Killing Off Beneficial Bacteria… For Good?

Functional characterization of the complement receptor type 1 and its circulating ligands in patients with schizophrenia.

Complement receptor 1 is a general receptor for opsonised pathogens, several of which have been implicated in schizophrenia: See  Schizophrenia genes, pathways and risk factors: Schizophrenia is associated with the increased CR1 expression and complement C1q-CIC levels on blood cells

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Obesity to worsen, weigh heavily on healthcare costs | Reuters

New research links obesity with heart rhythm disorder

The gut microbiota: challenging immunology : Article : Nature Reviews Immunology

Medical News: Half of Americans Projected to Be Obese in 2030 - in Primary Care, Obesity from MedPage Today

Vitamin D intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women

 In this study, older women who regularly took vitamin D were less likely to suffer from depression.

Depression genes risk factors and pathways

Natural Alzheimer's-fighting compound created inexpensively in lab

The compound is huperzine , which is a cholinesterase inhibitor and NMDA receptor antagonist. It has been used in China and shows some effectiveness in Alzheimer;s disease symptomatology.


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Omega-3s reduce stroke severity, study suggests

This was a prevention rather than cure study, as mice fed  omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids had lower levels of brain damage following an induced stroke. It highlights the importance of a healthy diet in preventive medicine in general.


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Slim down by targeting the hormone uroguanylin

Pro-uroguanylin is secreted by the gut in mice following a meal  , and travels to the satiety centre in the hypothalamus where conversion to uroguanylin suppresses food intake : This could lead to the development of appetite suppressants. However, drugs are not the way to fight the obesity epidemic and its causes need to be eliminated.

Childhood obesity genes and risk factors:
 
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Vitamin A supplements for children could save 600,000 lives a year, experts predict

Vitamin A deficiency has also been implicated in diseases related to old age -for example Alzheimer's disease Jimenez et al, 1999 where many susceptibility genes, including APOE4 appear to be involved in vitamin A function ISRN Neurology, 2011

Alzheimer's disease genes risk factors and pathways :


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Treatment with vitamin C dissolves toxic protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease

Vaccinia and other viruses with available vaccines show marked homology with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein: The prospect of using existing vaccines

Cross-reactive immunity occurs when infection with or vaccination against one virus protects against another related family member. A search for homologues of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein revealed that it is composed of thousands of intercalating and overlapping viral matches of pentapeptide or longer gapped consensi, belonging to over 70% of the currently sequenced virome, infecting all kingdoms from bacteria to man. It was also highly homologous to proteins from the Visna/Maedi and other ovine viruses, while other proteins (nef/tat/gag/pol) were homologous to proteins from the equine infectious anaemia virus and HTLV-2/HTLV-3 viruses. This phenomenon suggests that horizontal gene transfer from coinfecting RNA and DNA viruses to retroviruses is extensive, providing a route for the subsequent insertion of non-retroviral genes into human and other genomes via retroviral integration. This homology includes all viruses for which vaccines already exist. Cross-reactive immunity may be operative in AIDS, as Vaccinia vaccination decreases viral replication in HIV-1 infected patients' cells, for the CCR5 tropic form. Measles, Dengue virus, or GB virus C infections also decrease the HIV-1 viral load. A resumption of Vaccinia/smallpox vaccination might be expected to have a significant effect on the AIDS pandemic, and a careful study of the potential uses of other existing viral and bacterial vaccines merits close attention. This phenomenon may also be relevant to other recalcitrant viruses, bacteria, and parasites for which no vaccine exists and the armory of existing vaccines may have a role to play in diseases other than those for which they were designed.

Study Identifies Fish Oil's Impact On Cognition And Brain Structure

Common cause of all forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) discovered

Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency in Mood Disorders: Rationale for Treatment and Prevention.

Dietary strategies in psychiatric disorders could help to reduced the incidence of disease and perhaps alleviate the symptoms in many.

Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

After infection with the XMRV virus in mice, antibodies to the virus are raised, but disappear rapidly - perhaps explaining the controversy relating to the role of the virus in chronic fatigue and prostate cancer.

Chronic fatigue genes and risk factors
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Changing perspectives on Alzheimer's disease: thinking outside the amyloid box.

See also "The Fox and the Rabbits—Environmental Variables and Population Genetics (1) Replication Problems in Association Studies and the Untapped Power of GWAS (2) Vitamin A Deficiency, Herpes Simplex Reactivation and Other Causes of Alzheimer's Disease ISRN Neurology, 2011 

Risk factors: Alzheimer's genes, risk factors and pathways  :

Bioinformatics & Functional Genomics: Free online course

The website for Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics (2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009) features a complete bioinformatics teaching curriculum: powerpoints for an entire course taught at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and web site links organized by chapter in the new textbook, Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. A separate resource (at the Wiley Higher Education site) is available to instructors, providing detailed solutions to problems.

Common Virus May Ride Up Nose To Brain - Science News

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The Color Of Controversy - ADHD and food dyes

Several studies have linked food dyes to hyperactivity problems in children (ADHD) "In 2008 the European Parliament dictated that foods with certain dyes had to contain warnings that the chemicals “may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children.” Neither the FDA nor American lawmakers have gone that far, saying that the levels of dye currently in foods are safe".

Perhaps if they did then the incidence of ADHD could be reduced.
ADHD risk factors

A novel mechanism that regulates pro-inflammatory cells is identified

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

New drug could cure nearly any viral infection - MIT News Office

Large Multiple Sclerosis GWAS Points to Cell-Mediated Immunity Genes | GenomeWeb Daily News | Arrays | GenomeWeb

L Risk factors: A Multiple sclerosis

High levels of potentially toxic flame retardants in California pregnant women

Antioxidant spices, like turmeric and cinnamon, reduce negative effects of high-fat meal

Little Exercise, Big Effects: Reversing Aging and Infection-Induced Memory Deficits, and Underlying Processes

Physical exercise increases BDNF levels in the brain and prevented bacterial infection-induced neuroinflammatory responses It completely reversed infection-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. This is relevant to almost all diseases where infection is a risk factor (see microbiome)

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JNI | Abstract | Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria.

Spirochetes were observed in the brain in more than 90% of Alzheimer's cases .Spirochetal infection (Borrelia and treponemes) occurs years or decades before the manifestation of dementia. "As adequate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate dementia". Borrelia burgdorferi is one of several pathogens able to promote beta-amyloid deposition. It is clear that the regular detection and elimination of pathogens could have a marked effect on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease genes and risk factors

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Intestinal microbiota was assessed in cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B virus infection

The intestinal microbiome is affected in hepatitis b infection, suggesting that one pathogen can alter the distribution of other pathogens and commensals.


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Researchers find link between common dietary fat, intestinal microbes and heart disease

Antibodies linked to long-term Lyme symptoms : Nature News

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi is a tick borne infection associated with many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Antibodies to the pathogen persist even after its elimination and could be responsible for the immune activation seen in patients.
 

Mindless eating: Losing weight without thinking

This study showed several simple factors could reduce overeating: If you eat off a small plate, or a smaller popcorn bucket, you will eat less , but will continue to eat if the bowl is full - even if you are no longer hungry. Get some smaller tableware ! Childhood obesity risk factors

IIncreased mid-gestational IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 in women giving birth to a child with autism:

This study showed evidence for immune activation in the mothers of autistic children during the middle of pregnancy . This could perhaps be releted to some form of infection.
Autism genes and risk factors

Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Disease-Specific Autoantibody Profiles in Human Sera

This is most important:  First of all, almost 1000 different autoantibodies can be found in normal serum, secondly, the profile differs in Alzheimer's disease and this profile can be used as a predictive tool. In fact a panel of only 10 autoantibodies can accurately identify Alzheimer's patients.

Alzheimer's genes risk factors and previous autoantibodies

Stopping snoring cuts heart attack risk, researchers find - News and Events - University of Sydney

Autism Risks: Genes May Not Play Biggest Role : NPR

When the risk of developing autism is greater in fraternal twins (who only share 50% of their DNA) that in identical twins, the environment has to play a role. The incidence of autism has risen by almost 5 fold in the last decade ( see Autism genes and risk factors ) .This is unlikely to be genetic.
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