Antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are attenuated by antiinflammatory drugs in mice and humans

This study found that frontal cortical levels of certain cytokines (TNF alpha and Interferon gamma ) were increased by antidepressant serotonin reuptake inhibitors and that these effects were inhibited by antiinflammatory agents. Furthermore a retrospective analysis of patient data suggested that this antagonistic effect was also seen in the clinic. i.e. anti-inflammatories block the effects of antidepressants.
The interest is twofold - why do SSRI's increase cytokine levels and - is this in any way relevant to their effects ? and why should blocking inflammation stop antidepressants working ?
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New treatment dissolves blood clots in brain tissue

This procedure for clot removal was developed for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Using techniques akin to micro GPS, surgeons were able to inject the clotbuster tissue plasminogen activator  (tPA) directly into the relevant area of brain.
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Researchers establish link between obesity, vitamin D levels - FierceBiotech Research

Obesity can lead to a reduction in vitamin D levels, and Vitamin D deficiency  can be associated with a large number of diseases. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin , and may be locked up in the fat reserves of the obese population. Losing weight dramatically increased vitamin D levels. 

 Other Vitamin D posts
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Polypill 'halves risk of stroke and heart attack' - Health News - NHS Choices

The polypill is a mixture of aspirin and statins: This improved blood pressure and reduced levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol over a 12 week period.As these are risk factors in a variety of diseases, this type of cost-effective approach may be very useful.
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Child sleeping hours 'linked to weight gain'

This study, although limited by a small sample size, suggested that children who slept for an hour less in their earlier years had a later body mass index that was slightly higher. 


 Childhood obesity risk factors:
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Immunological abnormalities as potential biomarkers in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

This study documented clear evidence for immune activation in chronic fatigue syndrome, including increases in interleukin-10, interferon-gamma, TNF-alpha and  CD4+CD25+ T cells ( a result of viruses and other pathogens implicated in this disorder ?)


Chronic fatigue risk factors:
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β-Hexachlorocyclohexane levels in serum and risk of Parkinson's disease.

β-Hexachlorocyclohexane levels in serum are associated with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. This is a by-product of the insecticide, lindane. Although its use has been banned, its traces can still be found in soil and water, and its effects evidently linger on in terms of risks such as these. Several other studes have linked pesticide use to this disorder.

Parkinson's disease risk factors  
Kegg pathways Parkinson's 
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Charting the peptide crossreactome between HIV-1 a... [Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011] - PubMed result

The HIV-1 proteome shares extensive homology with human proteins, including those involved in AIDS, or with the comorbid conditions associated with AIDS (psychosis, myopathy, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, corneal diseases, diarrhea, lymphoma, and bladder cancer).
The findings are relevant to HIV-1 escape from immune surveillance, adjuvant-induced HIV-1 immunogenicity, and autoimmune cross-reactivity following human hyperimmune responses against HIV-1, and AIDS.
This phenomenon is also common to other viruses and bacteria, whose proteins resemble those relevant to the pathologies of the diseases in which they are implicated - for example herpes simplex and Alzheimer's disease, or diverse pathogens and schizophrenia.
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Can stress increase the risk of multiple sclerosis?

Well, as with so many risk factors, yes and no. Stress does not seem to be involved as a cause of multiple sclerosis, although several studies have previously shown to increase the risk of multiple sclerosis relapses: Again this is a thorny subject , partly due to the difficulty of defining "stress". See refs

Multiple sclerosis risk factors  Kegg pathways of multiple sclerosis genes 
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Earlier And More Accurate Prediction Of Diseases Such As Diabetes, Atherosclerosis And Heart Disease, Presented At European Society Of Human Genetics

New Super Sticky Cholesterol In Individuals With High Heart Disease Risk Discovered

This form of low density lipoprotein is created by adding sugar residues to LDL (glycation). It adheres better to arterial walls and is more likely to form the fatty plaques that lead to atherosclerosis. The sugar/lipoprotein link ties diabetes and atherosclerosis together explaining their common involvement in heart disease and other related disorders e.g.Alzheimer's disease.
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Women Who Start Prenatal Vitamins Early Are Less Likely To Have Children With Autism

The effects were attributed to folic acid, the synthetic form of folate aka vitamin B9, and the other B vitamins which may protect against deficits in early foetal brain development.

Risk factors: Autism risk factors :  Kegg pathways of autism genes 
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Schizophrenia: A Pathogenetic Autoimmune Disease Caused by Viruses and Pathogens and Dependent on Genes

Data Mining Reveals Dangerous Side Effect Of Common Antidepressant / Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Combination

The two drugs involved are the antidepressant Paxil, (paroxetine) and the cholesterol-lowering medication Pravachol (Pravastatin) which together cause increases in blood glucose levels - an unexpected finding as neither drug alone shows such an effect. The auhors used bioinformatics data mining methods to dig out these interactions and this is likely to be useful for other potentially dangerous drug interactions
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High risk of Parkinson's disease for people exposed to pesticides near workplace / UCLA Newsroom

These effects were not restricted to the farmers spraying the fields but also extended to neighbours in the vicinity - probably relating to spray drift in windy conditions. This link has long been suspected and paraquat and rotenone and maneb are known to kill dopamine neurones in animal models, via inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, as for MPTP.  Combined exposure to ziram , maneb (fungicides) and paraquat (herbicide)  near any workplace increased the risk of Parkinson's disease threefold, while combined exposure to ziram and paraquat alone was associated with an 80 percent increase in risk.These risk effects are much larger than for most susceptibility genes.

 Other risk factors in Parkinson's disease
Genetic pathways in Parkinson's disease 
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Data Links Anesthesia Use And Learning Disabilities, ADHD

Children younger than 4 years who were exposed to anaesthesia for 120 min and longer at least twice are at higher risk.
Other ADHD risk factors 

Factors Affecting Duration of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Pediatric Patients.

These black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, a...Image via Wikipedia
Seropositive status for Borrelia burgdorferi  , a cause of Lyme disease carried by ticks,  and for the Epstein-Barr virus was identified in 66% of patients with the diagnosis of Chronic fatigue syndrome.

Other chronic fatigue risk factors:
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Fecal bacteriotherapy for ulcerative colitis: Patients are ready, are we?

Faecal transplants were perhaps the first successful clinical application of the microbiome. Clearly the idea is not compelling  - but it works and patient and clinical education is important.

Transcriptomic analysis of autistic brain reveals convergent molecular pathology.

Reports of autism cases per 1,000 children gre...Autism incidence increase: Image via Wikipedia
This expression analysis revealed two sets of genes, one enriched in autism susceptibility genes, including  RBFOX1  , an ataxin binding protein, and the other relating to immunity and glial function. This latter subset was not enriched in susceptibility genes, suggesting an environmental input.

Autism risk factors :

KEGG pathways of autism susceptibility genes 
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Extensive protein interaction network controls gene regulation

Ateam of scientists at Baylor College of Medicine has  identified and classified virtually all the transcriptional coregulators in a human cells.

See the nuclear receptor signalling atlas
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Regenocyte Successfully Treats Cystic Fibrosis Using Patients' Own Adult Stem Cells

 This successful stem cell treatment had impressive effects in a cystic fibrosis patient - who is now up and running - an incredible success.


Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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The membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster contains a common variant associated with Alzheimer's disease.

This cluster contains a number of immune related genes  and this study homed in on MS4A2 an immunoglobulin E receptor involved in allergy. refs

Alzheimer's disease Risk factors, including atopy and allergy  : Alzheimer's :   

Kegg Alzheimer's gene pathways, including many immune pathways 
See also

Alzheimer's disease: a pathogenetic autoimmune disorder caused by herpes simplex in a gene-dependent manner.

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Genes and risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

This page details several of the environmental risk factors (infections, allergies, pesticides and pollutants) and susceptibility genes that have been implicated in  attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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Newly Discovered Bacteria Lives on Caffeine


Autism changes molecular structure of the brain, study finds

Autism gene expression studies in post mortem brains revealed reduced expression of genes responsible for neuronal function and communication. and an increase in the levels of genes involved in immune function and inflammation

Higher serum sTNFR1 level predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

TNFR1 plays a critical role in the control of severe HSV-1 encephalitis Viela et al, 2010.

Channeling the Microbiome - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

The role of bacteria in asthma and the potential for antibiotic treatment

A subset of asthma patients have a high level of C. pneumoniae in their lungs and of antibodies to the bacterium.  The authors suggest that some types of asthma might be cured by antibiotics.
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Protein from probiotic bacteria may alleviate inflammatory bowel disorders

Read the paper:- 

Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism

Scientists: Smallpox vaccine slowed spread of HIV - FierceVaccines

There is a lot of debate about whether or not to destroy the two remaining reserves of smallpox in Russia and the USA : Perhaps here is one of the reasons why not: You never know when it might be useful.
See Medical News today story

Lab Samples Of Live Smallpox Should Not Be Destroyed To Ensure Critical Research Continues

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View point: Etiology in Parkinson's disease. Dual hit or spreading intoxication

Lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein accumulation are first found in the enteric nervous system of the gut and in the olfactory bulb in Parkinson's disease and only later in the brain.  This supports the idea that the disease may start by the ingestion of a toxin or pathogen, and is in agreement with the recent implication of Helicobacter pylori in the disease.


Risk factorsParkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's 
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Vitamin D Levels Low In African-Americans With Multiple Sclerosis

Several studies have now linked vitamin D deficency to multiple sclerosis and vitamin D related genes are among the many that contribute to risk.

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis 

Other multiple sclerosis posts
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Childhood Developmental Disability Rate Rose From 12.84% To 15.04% In 12 Years In USA

Many disorders are covered here but one startling result was that autism prevalence rose from 0.19% in 1997-1999 to 0.74% in 2006-2008 - a near 4 fold increase. This can not be due to genes, so what are the environmental factors that are causing this near epidemic ? What has been added (or taken away) over the last few decades ?
See Autism risk factors. 

Cuts To School Meal Budgets And A U-Turn On Cooking Skills In Schools Could Have A Dramatic Effect On Childhood Obesity

EEffects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatments on cognitive decline vary by phase of pre-clinical Alzheimer disease:

Naproxen  slowed cognitive decline in slow decliners while accelerating decline in fast decliners. Celecoxib appeared to have similar effects at first but then slowed the change in fast decliners.

Whether or not these drugs have an effect depends on the time of administration, and on the disease state.
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The 12th International Meeting on Human Genome Variation and Complex Genome Analysis (HGV2011)

When: 8th-10th September, 2011
Where: Claremont Hotel Club and Spa, Berkeley, CA, USA

Using a pan-viral microarray assay (virochip) to screen clinical samples for viral pathogens.

A DNA microarray.Image via Wikipedia
Viruses have been implicated in a large number of diseases. This Virochip, with probes from over 1500 viruses, now available from Agilent should be a massive aid to clinical research.

See this microbiome page for an illustration of the many viruses (and bacteria) associated with human diseases.

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The plant sterol brassicasterol as additional CSF biomarker in Alzheimer's disease.

Brassica napus, Brassicaceae, Rapeseed, oilsee...Image via WikipediaLower CSF levels of the plant sterol brassicasterol were observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. Brassicasterol is a product of oilseed rape , a margarine ingredient, that contains omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids (the good ones also present in fish). High levels of polyunsaturated fats, or fish consumption,  have been associated with a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease while saturated fats (e.g. from red meat) have been associated with high incidence.

See Alzheimer's disease risk and protective factors


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Viagra® Could Reduce Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Welcome to Sequilab Research Portal - Setting the trend in bioinformatics research

Comparison of a single-stranded RNA and a doub...Image via Wikipedia
This is a bioinformatics portal with a number of interesting collaborative features: Many DNA, RNA and proteomics tools are available and you can store and save your work in one place rather than jumping from site to site.


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Cells may stray from 'central dogma' : Nature News

The central dogma: DNA makes RNA makes protein: Still true, but sometimes the RNA is not that predicted by the DNA , and has been edited: The protein is copied from the RNA and in these edited cases the protein sequence reflects the RNA and not the original DNA sequence. It is of course the proteins that provide the function, so what does this mean in terms of gene association and other studies ? Identical genes in different individuals need not necessarily make an identical protein. Look out for a flurry of RNA polymorphisms ?

Desulfovibrio species are potentially important in regressive autism.

Risk factors: Autism : Kegg pathways of Autism genes

Apolipoprotein E ε4 prevalence in Alzheimer's disease patients varies across global populations: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Alzheimer's  patients from Asian and southern European/Mediterranean communities had significantly lower APOE4 carrier status estimates than those recruited in North America  or northern Europe;

This also appears to be the case for a number of polymorphic genes in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease See this page

Randomized Study Combining L-Methylfolate With Antidepressant Shows Significant Boost In Patient Response

 L-Methylfolate is an active form of folic acid and is used , among other uses , to recycle homocysteine back to methionine: Elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor in multiple medical conditions.
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Infections and ‘Friendly fire’ may be at the root of Parkinson-like diseases » Health Science Center News & Communications - University of Florida

Interferon gamma, which is an immune controlling cytokine released in response to infections, kills substantia nigra neurones.Several infections, notably influenza, have been implicated in Parkinson's disease.

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's Schizophrenia
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Toxoplasma Infection and Later Development of Schizophrenia in Mothers.

Conclusions: Women with high levels of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies have a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  
Risk factors: Schizophrenia Kegg pathways (includes toxoplasmosis) Schizophrenia
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Gut bacteria linked to behavior: That anxiety may be in your gut, not in your head

Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly.

Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis.

Medical illustration of a human mouth by Dunca...Image via Wikipedia
This study identified Chryseomonas in all atherosclerotic plaque samples, and Veillonella and Streptococcus species in the majority. The combined abundances of Veillonella and Streptococcus in atherosclerotic plaques correlated with their abundance in the oral cavity.

Gum disease has also been associated with atherosclerosis and P.Gingivalis antibodies (an oral pathogen) are also found in many  atherosclerotic plaques  Choi et al, 2011 
Gum disease, and atherosclerosis are also implicated in Alzheimer's disease 
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Herpes-Like Virus Could Be A Risk Factor For Multiple Sclerosis

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus-associated Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Reveals a Distinct Inflammatory Signature.

Neglect shortens kid telomeres - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

Young kids that spend more time in institutional care have shorter telomeres than those raised in foster care

Researchers Find De Novo Autism Mutations Using Exome Sequencing | GenomeWeb Daily News |

The mutations found by exome sequencing were in the FOXP1 (Forkhead box transcription factor), GRIN2B (NMDA receptror) , SCN1(Sodium channel) , and LAMC3 ( a laminin extracellular matrix glycoprotein) genes.


Risk factors: Autism risk factors and KEGG pathways :
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In search of cellular immunophenotypes in the blood of children with autism.

The absolute number of B cells was over 20% higher for children with autism and the absolute number of natural killer cells was about 40% higher, supporting the idea of immune dysfunction in autism.

 Autism risk factors and KEGG pathways
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A potential link between autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in immune-mediated neurological disease (multiple sclerosis).

Multiple sclerosis patients make autantibodies to heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1, which cause neuronal damage when injected into neurones.

The chemical oxytocin may be linked to postnatal depression - Health News - NHS Choices

Oxytocin is involved in lactation and uterine contraction during childbirth: It also produces feelings of contentment, and reduced anxiety
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Certain bacteria render mosquitoes resistant to deadly malaria parasite, May 16, 2011 News Release - National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats.

Rochester Autism Researchers Present New Findings At IMFAR

Findings from this conference include:- 
Two-thirds of children with autism are taking dietary supplement supplements, twice the rate in the general pediatric population: Several nutrients in these supplements - folate, niacin and vitamin A exceed recommended levels. Such self- or parentally administered vitamins or supplements could in fact be harmful.
Food dyes had little effect on atutism risk, although yellow dyes were associated with sleep disorders.
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Simpler Genome Sequencing - Technology Review

Human genomeImage via Wikipedia
This company's aim is to develop technology to sequence a genome every 30 seconds, at low cost, bringing personalised medicine and predictive technology within the reach of general medicine. 
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Discovery Of 'Master Switch' Gene For Obesity And Diabetes

Very little is known about this imprinted gene,  the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 14 KLF14 : It does repress TGF beta receptor 2 expression and now seems to be important in regulating diabetes. obesity  and cholesterol
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Are Caesarian -sections fueling the obesity epidemic? | Reuters

Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

"Remembering Ritalin," Dr. Lawrence Diller Revisits Former Patients 15 Years Later

 Dr Diller argued, some years ago, that Ritalin overprescription and an overwillingness to attribute normal aberrant behaviour as a disease, led to children's conversion to lifelong patients, forever dependent on treatment. This review, 15 years on, is interesting reading.


Risk factors:Autism : Kegg pathways in autism
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Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's
Further details from Oxford University 

See also
  Vitamin A deficiency, herpes simplex reactivation and other causes of Alzheimer’s disease

Artemisinin reduces the level of antibodies to gliadin in schizophrenia

Artemisinin is an antimalarial that also has activity against T.Gondii: It reduces the level of antibodies to gliadin, but not to T.Gondii in schizophrenia, but was without effect on symptoms in neuroleptic treated patients.

Risk factors:   Schizophrenia  
Kegg pathways Schizophrenia gene pathways, including Toxoplasmosis


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As Time Goes By, It Gets Tougher To "Just Remember This"

Public Citizen Takes Issue With Florbetapir Data

Why sons inherit their mother’s curse | Not Exactly Rocket Science | Discover Magazine

This relates to the selective inheritance of all mitochondria from the maternal line.

Estrogen Receptors Play Anti-Inflammatory Role In The Brain

This may have important implications for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases where oestrogen and gender influence pathology - for example Alzheimer's disease. They might also help to explain why women are three times more susceptible than men in developing multiple sclerosis. The receptor involved is oestrogen receptor beta found in microglia and astrocytes.
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Study Suggests Digestive Problems Early In Life May Increase Risk For Depression

Depression and anxiety and may result from short-term digestive irritation early in life, according to a study of laboratory rats by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Bacterium found to kill malaria in mosquitoes

Opinion: Progress toward an HIV/AIDS vaccine - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

Childhood Morbidity and Health in Early Adulthood:.

Childhood morbidity is also associated with poorer health subsequently in adulthood. Infections in childhood associate with a low level of high density lipoprotein, and higher level of triglycerides, plasma glucose, waist circumference, and obesity (but not hypertension) in adult life. Childhood morbidity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at older ages. However, diarrheal disease in later childhood was associated with lower levels of some risk factors, as measured by triglycerides and plasma glucose, suggesting that exposure to bacteria after infancy may be beneficial for some measures of adult health.
Childhood diseases thus seem to have a major influence on subsequent health in adult life.
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Mitochondria: Body’s power stations can affect aging

Scientists unmask mysterious cells as key 'border patrol agents' in the intestine

MicrobeWorld - Beneficial Bacteria Help Repair Intestinal Injury by Inducing Reactive Oxygen Species