Anorexia More Likely To Affect Those Born In Spring

Anorexia is more likely To affect those born in spring  suggesting an environmental influence
 
Risk factors in anorexia

Melatonin might help control weight gain and prevent heart disease associated with obesity

Melatonin might help control weight gain and prevent heart disease associated with obesity Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Increased metabolic rate may lead to accelerated aging

Increased metabolic rate may lead to accelerated aging

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with different types of obesity in black and white children

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with different types of obesity in black and white children Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

Obese adolescents lacking vitamin D

Obese adolescents lacking vitamin D Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

Protective T-cells, which are used in stem-cell treatment, can cause the body to attack itself

Protective T-cells, which are used in stem-cell treatment, can cause the body to attack itself

Old Drug May Hold New Promise in Alzheimer's Disease

This is lithium, which has been known to inhibit GSK3 beta, the tau phophorylator,  for some time. It has beneficial effects in mild cognitive impairment, but is so far without effect in Alzheimer's disease
Refs
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Updated 27 April 2011 Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease—Time for Bright New Ideas? from Alzforum


Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease from ALZFORUM on Vimeo.

Mouth as the gateway to your body

Mouth as the gateway to your body

Anti-Inflammatory Meds Can Reduce Antidepressant Effectiveness | Psych Central News

Childhood Morbidity and Health in Early Adulthood:... [Adv Life Course Res. 2010] - PubMed result

Higher levels of infections in childhood were associated with a low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL), and higher level of triglycerides, plasma glucose, waist circumference, and obesity (but not hypertension) Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

GM-CSF required for the immune attack in multiple sclerosis

GM-CSF required for the immune attack in multiple sclerosis  

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis  
Kegg signalling pathways in multiple sclerosis
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Postencephalitic parkinsonism and basal ganglia necrosis due to Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's

Human herpesvirus 6 and effectiveness of interferon beta 1b in multiple sclerosis patients.

This paper showed that herpes virus HHV6 infection was associated with relapses in multiple sclerosis 

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis
Kegg pathways of multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes
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The fox and the rabbits, environmental variables and population genetics.1: Replication problems in association studies and the untapped power of GWAS. 2: Vitamin A deficiency, herpes simplex reactivation and other causes of Alzheimer’s disease

On two islands covered in snow or black volcanic ash live two populations of black and white rabbits and a fox, who will more easily devour the black rabbits in the snow - and the white rabbits in the ash. The black and white genes are risk promoting or protective, depending on the island. The snow, the ash, or the fox are apparently irrelevant on either island, as all are equally present whether the rabbits are alive or dead.
Black and white genes, or the snow or ash, as  risk factors, can however be risk promoting or protective depending on circumstance. Meta-analysis combining all data, or GWAS data pooling from both islands, would negate these findings leaving no genes, risk factor or cause: However,  a partitioning of GWAS data in relation to the snow or the ash could correctly identify risk and protective genes and risk factors - but not the fox, still present in all compartments.

The effects of genes and risk factors can therefore condition each other, and allow or disallow the effects of a causative agent, which can be present in equal quantity in both control and death promoting samples. The genes or risk factors are not killing the rabbits, but are allowing the cause to do so.

 What conditions the risk promoting effects of hundreds of genes and dozens of risk factors in complex diseases, and how do you find the fox ?

Adapted from the population genetics example of the evolution of the peppered moth 

Novel Pathophysiologic Mechanism Responsible For Autoimmunity Identified By Scientists

Human proteins that bind to dermatan sulphate, found mainly in skin and blood vessels, are more likely to become autoantigens
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Quantitative PCR study of the influence of probiotic culture soluble fraction on the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing genes

P. Aeruginosa is one of many species hypercolonising the airways in cystic fibrosis. This study showed that its virulence could be reduced by probiotics

Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

The effect of serotonin on the cytotoxic activity of natural killer lymphocytes in patients with the first episode of endogenous psychosis.

Lose Weight, Gain Memory Function?

Lose Weight, Gain Memory Function? Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

Gut study divides people into three types : Nature News

Gut study divides people into three types : Nature News Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Insulin: Predictor for Alzheimer's? | Medical News and Health Information

Insulin: Predictor for Alzheimer's? | Medical News and Health Information Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Caltech: Learning to tolerate our microbial self

Pesticide Exposure in Womb Linked to Lower IQ : Discovery News

Pesticide Exposure in Womb Linked to Lower IQ : Discovery News: "- Sent using Google Toolbar"

USC research shows critical role of placenta in brain development

USC research shows critical role of placenta in brain development: "- Sent using Google Toolbar"

Compound effectively halts progression of multiple sclerosis in animal model

 

Common virus plus low sunlight exposure may increase risk of multiple sclerosis

This study showed that a combined effect of Epstein Barr virus infection and low sunlight, which also leads to Vitamin D deficiency were able to explain a great deal of the incidence of multiple sclerosis in the UK. A recent paper also highlighted a relationship of the Epstein-Barr virus with Vitamin D related genes , and also of the possible relationship of a Synechococcus phage to multiple sclerosis. The ecology of this phage and its cyanobacterial hosts are closely related to sunlight.
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An unbiased metagenomic search for infectious agents using monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue.

Limited evidence was found for infection with GB virus C which requires confirmation Risk factors: Chronic fatigue:

LDL-associated apolipoprotein J (clusterin) and lysozyme are associated with atherogenic properties of LDL found in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Antibody Responses against Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Envelope in a Murine Model.

In XMRV envelope vaccinated mice XMRV antibodies peak transiently and then rapidly disappear. This perhaps explains the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome studies. The low level of immunogenicity could be a characteristic of XMRV infection in humans. Lack of antibodies does not therefore necessarily preclude the presence of an earlier infection.
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Apples Significantly Lower LDL Cholesterol Levels In Older Women

There are many dietary ingredients which are known to lower "bad cholesterol"  including fish, fruit and oats (porridge). Dietary advice, rather than the use of statins could markedly reduce the risk of developing cholesterol related diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and  coronary heart disease.
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TThe airway microbiome in cystic fibrosis and implications for treatment.

Kegg pathways Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Human Ecstasy Use is Associated with Increased Cortical Excitability: An fMRI Study

The neurotoxic effects of ecstacy (MDMA) in animals have long been known. This human study confirms such effects
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Co-Morbidity Of Autism And Epilepsy Examined

Reports of autism cases per 1,000 children gre...Image via Wikipedia showing the dramatic rise in autism
This post mortem study showed that a close link  between epilepsy and autism 

Risk factors in Autism : Kegg pathways of autism genes
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Insulin: Predictor for Alzheimer's? | Medical News and Health Information

Insulin: Predictor for Alzheimer's? | Medical News and Health Information Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Omega-3 Consumed During Pregnancy Curbs Risk For Postpartum Depression Symptoms

Omega-3 Consumed During Pregnancy Curbs Risk For Postpartum Depression Symptoms Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Allen Institute for Brain Science announces first comprehensive gene map of the human brain

Allen Institute for Brain Science announces first comprehensive gene map of the human brain Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Heart disease risk factors linked to some cognitive decline

Heart disease risk factors linked to some cognitive decline Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Quanterix Discovers Link Between Heart Attack-Induced Hypoxia And Suspected Alzheimer's Disease Pathway

The core gut microbiome, energy balance and obesity

"...............findings indicate that a core microbiome can be found at the gene level, despite large variation in community membership, and that variations from the core are associated with obesity"
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Epstein–Barr and other viral mimicry of autoantigens, myelin and vitamin D-related proteins and of EIF2B, the cause of vanishing white matter disease: massive mimicry of multiple sclerosis relevant proteins by the Synechococcus phage

The Epstein–Barr virus expresses proteins containing numerous short consensi (identical pentapeptides at least, or longer gapped consensi) that are identical to those in 16 multiple sclerosis autoantigens or in the products of multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes. Other viruses implicated in multiple sclerosis also display such mimicry and the Synechococcus phage was identified as a novel and major contributor to this phenomenon. Cyanobacteria hosts of Synechococcus phages favor temperate climes, in line with multiple sclerosis distribution, and bacterial and phage ecology accords closely with multiple sclerosis epidemiology. Bovine, ovine or canine viral proteins were also identified as autoantigen homologues, in line with epidemiological data linking multiple sclerosis to cattle density, sheep contact and dog ownership. Viral proteins align with known autoantigens, other myelin and vitamin D-related proteins and the translation initiation factor EIF2B, which is implicated in vanishing white matter disease. These data suggest that the autoantigens in multiple sclerosis, which causes demyelination in animal models, may be generated by antibodies raised to viral protein homologues. Multiple autoantibodies may cause multiple sclerosis via protein knockdown and immune activation. Their selective removal may be of clinical benefit as already suggested by promising results using plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption in certain multiple sclerosis patients.

See multiple sclerosis risk factors
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Cellular feast or famine: How cells decide whether they have enough fat

Cellular feast or famine: How cells decide whether they have enough fat

Drinking 100 Percent Fruit Juice May Offer Disease-Fighting Benefits

Drinking 100 Percent Fruit Juice May Offer Disease-Fighting Benefits Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Stress wrecks intestinal bacteria, could keep immune system on idle

Enviromental influences on the microbiome, in this case stress, which in turn affects the influence of the microbiome on the immune system.
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UNC study helps clarify link between high-fat diet and type 2 diabetes

...........which is that saturated fats activate interleukin 1- beta production by the immune network . IL1B then turns off insulin production in various tissues, favouring type 2 diabetes
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Vitamin D and the anti-viral state. [J Clin Virol. 2011] - PubMed result

 Vitamin D has many benefits, not least as an immunostimulant. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a number of diseases. It also has antiviral effects as discussed here
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The Cell: An Image Library

Some beautiful pictures of cells from many laboratories : Submit your own images as well.

Helminthic therapy - Wikipedia

The microbiome can have deleterious or beneficial effects on human health . Helminthic therapy is being assessed in a number of disorders as reviewed in this article. See also Pubmed articles and ClinicalTrials.gov

See also  viruses, bacteria. other pathogens and probiotics in various human diseases
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Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002.

This study showed that in male children, hepatitis B vaccination was associated with a three fold higher risk of  their parents reporting autism

  Risk factors Autism :   Kegg pathways in autism 
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Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism -- comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity.

In this study gastrointestinal symptoms correlated with the severity of autism: Children with autism had lower levels of species of Bifidobacter  and higher levels of species of Lactobacillus  but similar levels of other bacteria and yeast: Children with autism also had  lower levels of total short chain fatty acids including lower levels of acetate, proprionate, and valerate;

Risk factors in autism : Kegg pathway analysis of Autism susceptibility genes
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Vehicle pollution significantly damages mouse brain

Vehicle pollution significantly damages mouse brain

Liberals, Conservatives Have Different Brain Structures - Science News - redOrbit

Liberals, Conservatives Have Different Brain Structures - Science News - redOrbit

RNA duplicating RNA, a step closer to the origin of life

RNA duplicating RNA, a step closer to the origin of life

A world first: The discovery of a common genetic cause of autism and epilepsy

The gene is the synapsin SYN1 a key element in synaptic vesicles involed in neurotransmitter release, particularly glutamate 

Risk factors: Autism : Kegg pathways Autism
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The Metabolic Signaling Pathway Responsible For Dyslipidemia Identified By Researchers

ID#: 846 Description: Gross pathology of ather...Image via Wikipedia
AMPK (AMP activated protein kinase)  suppression and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activation are important mediators of fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetes associated diseases such as atherosclerosis (and Alzheimer's disease) 
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One step closer to a diagnostic test for schizophrenia

The power of the -omes - this time the metabolome where mass measurements have identified a profile specific to schizophrenia. Full paper

The human metabolome project
 
Search Amazon.com for metabolome
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Link between chronic depression and accelerated immune cell aging

Malfunction of the immune system is implicated in many psychiatric diseases, including depression. Many genes in volved in the immune networks are also implicated in Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and others

Routine Periodic Fasting Is Good For Your Health, And Your Heart

"Fasting causes hunger, releasing cholesterol , allowing it to use fat as a source of fuel, instead of glucose. This decreases the number of fat cells in the body.The fewer fat cells a body has, the less likely it will experience insulin resistance, or diabetes."  
This is relevant to the nun study in Alzheimer's disease : Nuns appear less prone to the vagaries of ageing.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's :
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Clinical, environmental, and genetic determinants of multiple sclerosis in children with acute demyelination: a prospective national cohort study.

Risk of multiple sclerosis in children can be stratified by presence of HLA-DRB1*15 alleles, remote Epstein-Barr virus infection, and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. This is an importan way of using numerous risk factor interactions to tease out the interdependent variables.

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis Kegg pathways of multiple sclerosis genes
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Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens

Some pathogens need sugars to survive and have found a way to drain sugar from the host cell by activating glucose efflux transporters. The resulting loss of available energy is likely to severely compromise the host cell.

PLoS ONE: Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell

 This paper illustrates a major role for APP in herpes simplex viral transport and egress

Herpes simplex binding partners in Alzheimer's disease plaques and tangles 
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MicrobeWorld - A Bacterium That Acts Like a Toothbrush

While many of the several hundred species of bacteria that live in the mouth are dangerous, causing plaque and
gum disease, that can be risk factors for atherosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease,  some are beneficial, and this one,  S. salivarius blocks the creation of biofilms by Streptococcus mutans.
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Probiotic bacteria could help treat Crohn's disease

The probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) strain prevents infection by the more virulent adherent invasive E. coli strainin Crohns disease. E.Coli Nissle is also effective in irritable bowel syndrome. 

Other microbiome posts


Search Amazon.com for microbiome 
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Omega 6-rich safflower oil has beneficial effects on blood lipids in diabetes

The suetsumuhana (safflower)Image via Wikipedia
Safflower oil contains linoleic acid , an omega-6 fatty acid, and supplementation, in obese diabetic women, reduced abdominal fat, and increased levels of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar and fats. It improved glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids. This may be useful in other diseases such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

From Asp et al, 2011

Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-masked, crossover study.
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New Study Reveals 1 Million Human Genome Sequence Errors Across Two NGS Platforms - Bio-IT World

Two different methods of sequencing the same genome came up with a million differences - very small when compared to total genome size, but important discrepancies when it comes to analysing potential genetic risk factors , whose effects often depend on a single base substitution .

Aimless proteins in T.Gondii may be crucial to disease

Toxoplasma gondii attacks healthy cells by first injecting them with inactive kinases,.  Without these, T.Gondii  was unable to cause disease in mice; These kinases likely interfere with similar kinases inthe host

Risk factors: Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia 
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Link found between DNA damage and immune response