Speaking Multiple Languages Not Protective Against Alzheimer's

Quel dommage! 

Transfer of bacterial DNA to the host genome. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas disease

It is not just viral DNA that can end up in the host's geneme- but now, it seems, parasite DNA as well. Bacteria also connect with each other and exchange DNA

See these posts

Alzheimer's-like brain changes found in cognitively normal elders with amyloid plaques

Alzheimer's-like brain changes found in cognitively normal elders with amyloid plaques Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

KEGG pathway analysis of the AIDS virus HIV1/host interactome

Diagram of the HIV virus.Image via Wikipedia
The NCBI database of HIV-1 virus/ host interactions database records almost 1500 interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins. When mapped out with KEGG pathways it is possible to see the myriad processes affected by the virus during its life cycle. These include many pathways relevant to the associated "side effects" of viral infection including dementia (Alzheimer's pathway) , or psychosis (ERBB signalling or LTP). Numerous immune related pathways are also affected. testifying to the massive effect that the virus has on many aspects of immune function.

Other KEGG pathways
Enhanced by Zemanta

Do Food Dyes Make Some Children Hyperactive? FDA Investigates

Do Food Dyes Make Some Children Hyperactive? FDA Investigates Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

PLoS Biology: Host Defense against Viral Infection Involves Interferon Mediated Down-Regulation of Sterol Biosynthesis

PLoS Biology: Host Defense against Viral Infection Involves Interferon Mediated Down-Regulation of Sterol Biosynthesis

Putting Traditional Chinese Medicine to the Test - with bioinformatics

The activation of monocyte and T cell networks in patients with bipolar disorder.

Immune activation in Bipolar disorder can be added to the list of many others including autism and schizophrenia. Perhaps related to the infectious agents that have been implicated in these conditions.

Bipolar disorder genetic pathways including T cell signalling and several inflammatory and immune pathways. 
Enhanced by Zemanta

Elderly Dementia Patients at Serious Risk for Hypoglycemia

 Hypoglycemia is not good, as reduced glucose delivery to the brain can result in neuronal death , accelerating that already present in dementia patients.

No two of us are alike -- even identical twins: Pinpointing genetic determinants of schizophrenia

Comparison of typical zygote development in mo...Image via Wikipedia
No two of us are alike -- even identical twins: : Copy number variations and SNP's can differ between parents and children and between monozygotic twins.


Enhanced by Zemanta

Alternative Agents No Safer Than Atypicals in the Elderly

Antipsychotics and sedatives are often used in nursing homes for the elderly. However their safety is in question and they can have serious adverse effects in older patients. While this is known  in research centres, it is probably much less appreciated in nursing homes far from these units,  and education of the psychogeriatric caring community is essential.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Early detection of Parkinson's disease : Science Webinar

Parkinson's disease risk factors 
Pathways in Parkinson''s disease 

Oh Heavily, Father: Churchgoers More Likely to Become Obese

A Way to Fight the AIDS Virus With a Virus : Discovery News

Going Viral: Exploring the Role Of Viruses in Our Bodies

The microbiome has so far focussed mainly on bacteria: Now it seems that there are even more diverse viruses cohabiting with the bacteria and with ourselves. They can also help to shuffle DNA from one bacterial species to another, playing a role in bacterial evolution.
Enhanced by Zemanta

A Pseudomonas aeruginosa Toxin that Hijacks the Host Ubiquitin Proteolytic System : Increased degradation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis)

P.Aeruginosa is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis: It secretes a toxin that inactivates a host cell deubiquitinating enzyme (USP10), which increases the degradation of the CFTR secretory chloride channel

This would further reduce the activity of the CFTR channel, already compromised by mutations in cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis
CFTR interactome
Enhanced by Zemanta

'Knowing it in your gut': Cross-talk between human gut bacteria and brain

This comes form a paper "Reduced anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical change in germ-free mice" showing strong effects of microbes on brain and behaviour. These effects are relevant to the diverse viral, bacterial and other pathogens that are risk factorsor causes in many diseases.

Other microbiome effects are catalogued here:-
Enhanced by Zemanta

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 reproduction by probiotic bacteria in vitro

Turkish cacık, made with yoghurt and cucumberImage via Wikipedia
Supernatants of cultures of Lactobacillus species. and Enterococcus species, unlike those of E.Coli, have antiviral activity against herpes simplex. Could yogurt help prevent herpes viral replication- and the diseases associated with the virus - including Alzheimer's disease ?

Kegg pathways Herpes simplex infection
Enhanced by Zemanta

Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study.

Favourable effects were noted in this preliminary study with the non-pathogenic helminth, Trichuris suis which has already proved effective in  inflammatory bowel disease

Risk factorsMultiple sclerosis
Enhanced by Zemanta

Streptococcus enzyme could compete with toothbrushes, dental floss

Streptococcus enzyme could compete with toothbrushes, dental floss Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Antipsychotics May Up Mortality in Late-Life Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder risk factors : Bipolar disorder genetic pathways

Stress affects the balance of bacteria in the gut and immune response

Environment/environment interactions influencing  the immune system.

Scientists grow personalized collections of intestinal microbes

The micobiome plays a role in obesity, malnutrition, Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome, and many others. A grow your own solution that may perhaps have application in many human diseases. Big microbes replacing Big Pharma ?
Enhanced by Zemanta

How different strains of parasite infection (T.Gondii ) affect behavior differently

Different strains of T.Gondii modify host gene expression differently - but all upregulate VIPR2 a recently characterised important schizophrenia gene. VIPR2 expression in macrophages  is controlled by Toll receptor TLR2 or TLR2/6 (Herrera et al, 2009).  T.Gondii binds to galectin 3, an associate of TLR2 , in macrophages Debierre-Grockiego et al 2010

The KEGG pathways traced out by schizophrenia genes - now including VIPR2, include several viral and bacterial entry pathways, with toxoplasmosis heading the list.
Risk factors in schizophrenia including T.Gondii Kegg pathways of schizophrenia genes, including toxoplasmosis 
Enhanced by Zemanta

KEGG pathway analysis of Autism susceptibility genes

This analysis of several hundred Autism susceptibility gene candidates highlights MAPK, calcium, and neurotrophin pathways, among others,  as well as numerous adhesion related networks. As with many other diseases, immune networks are well represented , as are pathogen entry and defence pathways.

Other KEGG pathway analyses of polygenic diseases
Enhanced by Zemanta

The Human Jungle: Exploring the Microbiome

A fascinating insight into the microbiome, which can keep us healthy or make us sick, and kill or cure. We host several trillion microbes that influence health and disease. Resarch is beginning to uncover ways of manipulating this important ecosystem, which is a part of our selves.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Schizophrenia: A pathogenetic autoimmune disease caused by viruses and pathogens and dependent on genes: Journal of Pathogens

Many genes have been implicated in schizophrenia as have viral prenatal or adult infections and toxoplasmosis or Lyme disease. Several autoantigens also target key pathology-related proteins. These factors are interrelated. Susceptibility genes encode for proteins homologous to those of the pathogens while the autoantigens are homologous to pathogens’ proteins suggesting that the risk promoting effects of genes and risk factors are conditional upon each other, and dependent upon protein matching between pathogen and susceptibility gene products. Pathogens’ proteins may act as dummy ligands, decoy receptors or via interactome interference. Many such proteins are immunogenic suggesting that antibody mediated knockdown of multiple schizophrenia gene products could contribute to the disease, explaining the immune activation in the brain and lymphocytes in schizophrenia, and the preponderance of immune related gene variants in the schizophrenia genome. Schizophrenia may thus be a “pathogenetic” autoimmune disorder, caused by pathogens, genes and the immune system acting together, and perhaps preventable by pathogen elimination, or curable by the removal of culpable antibodies and antigens.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Marine microbes and other videos from YouTube: Watch this space

Research Unlocking Mysteries Surrounding Lyme Disease

These black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, a...Image via Wikipedia
Lyme Disease  is vectored by ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi and has been implicated as a risk factor in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia ; The genomes of 19 strains have now been sequenced that will help research in this area.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia 
Enhanced by Zemanta

Antibiotics May Make Fighting Flu Harder - Science News

3D model of an influenza virus.Influenza Image via Wikipedia
This effect is related to the beneficial effects of commensal bacteria which are able to activate viral defence mechanisms. Killing the bacteria with antibiotics reduces the ability to fight the flu virus. Another instance of the importance of the microbiomeAntibiotic misuse may also lead to development of resistant strains of bacteria.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Schizophrenia Research Forum: Online Discussions Neurexin—From Basic Biology to Cognitive Diseases

Schizophrenia Research Forum: Online Discussions  

Why Are 6 Of Top 7 Fattest Countries English Speaking Ones?

Metzis Tasty Takeaway Hamburger with the lot -...Image by Vanessa Pike-Russell via Flickr
Why Are 6 Of Top 7 Fattest Countries English Speaking Ones? Childhood obesity:
Enhanced by Zemanta

Serum levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance.

Chronic immune activation is evident in schizophrenia but is more episodic in  Bipolar disorder

Risk factorsBipolar disorderSchizophrenia Kegg pathways in Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia 

Scientists Target Genetically Modified Probiotics To Cure Gut Conditions

Individuality in gut microbiota composition is a complex polygenic trait shaped by multiple environmental and host genetic factors

Individuality in gut microbiota composition is a complex polygenic trait shaped by multiple environmental and host genetic factors
.......... and so are human diseases , which are also related to multiple genetic , viral and bacterial risk factors
Enhanced by Zemanta

Second Genome The Microbiome company

Aleksandar Milosavljevic and colleagues at the Baylor School of Medicine show
their findings from a study of children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome identifying Alistipes putredinis as a contributory factor Other data on asthma and others are also available

Improving the infant gut ‘microbiome’

Depiction of the human body and bacteria that ...Image via Wikipedia
The next big adventure in genomes is the sequencing and quantification all of the thousand of viruses and bacteria and others in the various microbiomes that exist all over the human body. These can differ in different areas, as shown,  and can both cause and protect against disease. 
Enhanced by Zemanta

Beyond Pesticides - Pesticide-Induced Diseases database

Man spraying herbicide/pesticide in a research...Image by IITA Image Library via Flickr
Pesticides have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease , Autism , Parkinson's disease and cancers. This database documents such effects. There seems to be little public health effort to minimise these avoidable risks.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
Enhanced by Zemanta

First Successful Double-Blind Trial Of Gene Therapy For Advanced Parkinson's

Illustration of Parkinson's diseaseImage via Wikipedia
First Successful Double-Blind Trial Of Gene Therapy For Advanced Parkinson's  

Risk factors Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's 
Enhanced by Zemanta

Capture of infectious borna disease virus using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads.

This is a useful technique for concentrating elusive viruses

Depression's multiple comorbidities explained by (neuro)inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress pathways.

A large number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, including depression, are related to inlammatory processes and immune activation.There seeems to be little reason for this within the neurotransmitter networks affected by such diseases ( dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and co) and a plausible explanation would be that this relates to the numerous infectious agents associated as risk factors. 

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Maternal Infection and Schizophrenia: Implications for prevention

Maternal Infection and Schizophrenia:  Risk factors: Schizophrenia Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia 

Maternal diet and diabetes risk - Health News - NHS Choices

Virology: Fighting for a cause The XMRV virus and chronic fatigue

Other XMRV posts

Red meat and bowel cancer risk

Steak and chipsImage via Wikipedia
Red meat and bowel cancer risk : A lower consumption of red meat and high fat dairy products has also been associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease Gu et al, 2010
Enhanced by Zemanta

Rapid discovery of inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii using hybrid structure-based computational approach.

There is no vaccine for T.Gondii and hypersensitivity and toxicity limit the use of the few available medicines: When are pharmaceutical companies going to take an interest ? A compound likely exists in the millions already synthesised. This could be of much much more use than novel neuroleptics. Risk factors: Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia patients referred to Psychiatric Hospital, Sari City, Iran.

This study reported a high incidence of T.Gondi antibodies in schizophrenia patients  
 
Risk factorsSchizophrena risk factors  
Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia gene pathways (including Toxoplasmosis) 

European Federation of Neurological Societies Congress 2011, Budapest, Hungary

Budapest castle by night.Image via Wikipedia
EFNS Congress 2011, Budapest, Hungary 
Enhanced by Zemanta

Beta Blockers Might Be Feeding the Obesity Epidemic

Map of Obesity in Adult Females (% of adult po...Obesity map in adult females  via Wikipedia
Beta Blockers Might Be Feeding the Obesity Epidemic: (and perhaps the almost grotesque amounts of food consumed by the western world )
Enhanced by Zemanta

Perturbation in Mitochondrial Network Dynamics and in Complex I Dependent Cellular Respiration in Schizophrenia.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Ontogenetic De Novo Copy Number Variations (CNVs) as a Source of Genetic Individuality: Studies on Two Families with MZD Twins for Schizophrenia

SNP's and copy number variations observed in twins can be absent from parents, adding a layer of compexity to genetic studies. Small effects like this are very unlikely to be noted in GWAS or other association studies.   
Enhanced by Zemanta

Alcohol may cut the risk of dementia - Health News - NHS Choices

 Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Gut bugs to lungs' rescue - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

The commensal bacteria of the gut, essential for digestion and the overall well-being of the intestines, also play a critical role in mounting an immune response to the flu virus in the lungs.

Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
Enhanced by Zemanta

Toxoplasmosis: The strain explains severity of infection

life cycle of Toxoplasma gondiiImage via Wikipedia
Toxoplasmosis: The strain explains severity of infection  
Risk factors: Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia genes (includes toxoplasmosis pathway)
Enhanced by Zemanta

The 12th International Meeting on Human Genome Variation and Complex Genome Analysis (HGV2011)

Changes in the number and order of genes (A-D)...Image via Wikipedia
Topics to be covered include methods/strategies for utilisation of 
different types of DNA variation (e.g., SNPs and copy number 
variations-CNVs), functional genomics applications, population genetics, 
bioinformatics, databases, algorithm development, personal genome 
sequencing, The 1000 Genomes Project, and the study of human disease

Enhanced by Zemanta

Vitamin D Insufficiency High Among Patients With Early Parkinson Disease

Yet another disease tied to Vitamin D deficiency.This had in fact already been reported, but this study showed that it occured prior to onset, and was in fact reduced at later stages.
Risk factors: Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's

Other vitamin D posts 
Enhanced by Zemanta

The impact of perinatal probiotic intervention on the development of overweight and obesity: follow-up study from birth to 10 years.

Early gut microbiota modulation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus , in pregnant mothers, may modify the growth pattern of the child and restrain excessive weight gain during the first years of life.This bacterium is sometimes used in yoghurt.

Risk factors: Childhood obesity:



Other microbiome posts
Enhanced by Zemanta

KEGG pathway analysis of the AIDS virus HIV-1/host interactome

The HIV-1 AIDS virus interacts with a large number of host proteins which etch out a number of signalling networks. These are related to the viral life cycle and to pathogen defense and to many immune related pathways. Pathways related to comorbid conditions such as NeuroAids, dementia or psychosis are also well represented.


Herpes simplex host/pathogen interactome
Enhanced by Zemanta

Whether a mouse lives or dies can be a matter of what bugs dwell in its gut.

Microbes Give Mice Intestinal Fortitude : More on the powerful influence of the microbiome
Enhanced by Zemanta

Pharmacogenomics Becomes Standard In Over 50 Hospitals Throughout Taiwan Through Use Of New Genetic Screening Kit

Pharmacogenomics will allow the use of personalised medicine tailored to the individual's genes that can help decide whether a drug will be effective or toxic.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Fingolimod: an oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis Kegg pathways Multiple sclerosis

A set of papers showing viral integration into plant, arthropod, fungal, nematode, and protozoan, mammalian and human genomes

 Viral integration into the human genome had until recently been thought to be the preserve of retroviruses. It is now clear that non retroviruses, both RNA viruses and DNA viruses, have also been inserted over evolutionary time , and that this is an ongoing process. This would appear to be the driving force in evolution.
Enhanced by Zemanta