Immune molecule regulates brain connections

The major histocompatibility complex MHC type I is involved in eliminating neuronal connections during late postnatal brain development.  
The immune system or prenatal infection are involved in several diseases including autism and schizophrenia, and this unsuspected secondary role of MHC molecules sheds new light on the relationships between the immune system and brain development.
Risk factors: Autism : Bipolar disorder Schizophrenia Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia 
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Strain Of Probiotic May Help Treat Ulcers Caused By Helicobacter Pylori

Strain Of Probiotic (Bifidobacterium bifidum ) May Help Treat Ulcers Caused By Helicobacter Pylori  

Helicobacter pylori  host/pathogen interaction datasheet
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Alzforum: Live Discussion: Herpes simplex and Alzheimer's disease

Risk factors: Alzheimer's 

 Kegg pathways Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection

Journal of Clinical Virology publishes positive outcome from CMX001 treatment against Adenovirus infection

This drug is being developed as a broad spectrum antiviral and trials are in progress for double stranded DNA viral infections, including adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and the Epstein Barr virus, the JC polyoma virus the BK polyoma virus  and pox virus infection.
Kegg pathways Herpes simplex infection
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The human metabolome database

The human metabolome database provides information about small molecule metabolites found in the human body and contains 1) chemical data, 2) clinical data, and 3) molecular biology/biochemistry data.
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Scientists Cook Up Spicy Dish to Help Stroke Victims | Medical News and Health Information

This is a curcumin derivative that crosses the blod brain barrier and helps to repair cells damaged by stroke
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Drug Replaces Aspirin for Stroke Prevention? | Medical News and Health Information

The drug involved is Apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor and anticoagulant

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The Early Involvement of the Innate Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Neuropathological, Epidemiological and Genetic Evidence.

The Early Involvement of the Innate Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Neuropathological, Epidemiological and Genetic Evidence.


See also this paper
Risk factors: Alzheimer's  

Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Herpes simplex infection 
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Phosphorylated dihydroceramides from common human ... [PLoS One. 2011] - PubMed result

Phosphorylated dihydroceramides activate toll receptor TLR2 : They can only be synthesised by bacteria and are present in human blood, vasculature tissues and brain.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Human Herpesviruses - NCBI Bookshelf

A free online NCBI book on herpes viruses:

Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis

Edited by Ann Arvin, Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume, Edward Mocarski, Patrick S. Moore, Bernard Roizman, Richard Whitley, and Koichi Yamanishi. KEGG pathways of Herpes simplex infection

Frontal-Subcortical Protein Expression following Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Inflammation.

Risk factors: Autism : Bipolar disorder :Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

A Promising New Drug for Cystic Fibrosis | MassGenomics

Kegg pathways Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Fungus fights malaria? - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

Fungus fights malaria? - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

BMI, Central Adiposity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment: Abstract and Introduction

BMI, Central Adiposity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment: Abstract and Introduction Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Childhood obesity: Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Microbes help children breathe easily? Bacteria and fungi may offer protection against asthma, study suggests

More on the benefits of the microbiome

High vitamin-D bread could help solve widespread insufficiency problem

vitamin D 

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia

Human Genome: Not a Cure-All : Discovery News

Human Genome: Not a Cure-All : Discovery News Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

New marker for heart disease identified in study of firefighters

The brachial artery.Image via Wikipedia
Then markers are brachial artery thickness and a series of blood tests. 
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A virtual conference on Molecular Mechanisms of Schizophrenia

Risk factors:Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

The Influence of Stress Factors on the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Infected Mice.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Herpes simplex infection

Docosahexaenoic Acid reduces amyloid {beta} production via multiple, pleiotropic mechanism.

Docosahexaenoic Acid reduces beta amyloid production. This partly explains the benefits of fish comnsumption and the mediterranean diet . Liver DHA synthesis is also impaired in Alzheimer's disease . However, while effective as prevention, DHA has little effect once the disease has set in.
Other DHA posts

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's
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Huntington's disease advance: Overactive protein triggers a chain reaction that causes brain nerve cells to die

Old folk remedy revived: How tansy may be a treatment for herpes

Old folk remedy revived: How tansy may be a treatment for herpes Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Opening a Can of Worms - to treat autism

Who would think of using worms to treat autism ? Well, T.Suis infection works in this case, illustrating the importance of  the human microbiome.

Risk factors Autism :
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High Cholesterol and Memory Problems | Medical News and Health Information

High Cholesterol and Memory Problems | Medical News and Health Information Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Amphetamines Could Cause Parkinson’s | Medical News and Health Information

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year...Image via Wikipedia
Amphetamines Could Cause Parkinson’s disease ;
The drugs involved are Benzedrine or Dexedrine which are used to obtain weight loss

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's
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Overview of leukodystrophies

Leukodystrophies are demyelinating conditions and research in this area is relevant to both Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which also show central demyelination, although not on the same scale. 
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Google Global Science Fair 2011

Google Global Science Fair 2011

Dramatic Increases in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence and Body Mass Index among Ethnic-immigrant and Social Class Groups in the United States, 1976–

Risk factors: Childhood obesity

Marked accumulation of 27-hydroxycholesterol in the brain of Alzheimer patients with the Swedish APP 670/671 mutation.

27-hydroxycholesterol

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's 

An updated meta-analysis of risk of multiple sclerosis following infectious mononucleosis

"Our results establish firmly that a history of infectious mononucleosis significantly increases the risk of multiple sclerosis".
Infections mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus

Risk factorsMultiple sclerosis
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Pollution with antibiotics leads to resistant bacteria, scientists find

Diet - High Fiber Intake Linked With Longer Life - NYTimes.com

Diet - High Fiber Intake Linked With Longer Life - NYTimes.com Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Deficient liver biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid correlates with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

Deficient liver biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid correlates with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

This is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, reduced levels of which have been linked to Alzheimer's disease; Higher levels of consumption , as with a diet rich in fish, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, although having little effect once the disease is in progress.


Risk factors: Alzheimer'sKegg pathways Alzheimer's 

Search Amazon.com for mediterranean diet
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Vitamin E may increase or decrease the risk of pneumonia, depending on smoking and exercise

This is a nice example of the conditioning effects of two environmental variables or risk factors. Vitamin E can either be a risk factor or a protective factor in pneumonia, depending on the degree of smoking or exercise. Interactions like this are likely to be relevant to the problems of heterogeneity in gene and risk factor association studies.
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The sigma-1 receptor enhances brain plasticity and functional recovery after experimental stroke — Brain

The sigma-1 receptor enhances brain plasticity and functional recovery after experimental stroke  





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Molecular pathways involved in neuronal cell adhesion and membrane scaffolding contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility

The adhesion molecule signalling network and many others are also implicated in the pathways etched out by pre- and post GWAS genes in schizophrenia.

KEGG pathways schizophrenia
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Infection, viral dissemination and antibody responses of Rhesus macaques exposed to the human gammaretrovirus XMRV.

Infection, viral dissemination and antibody respon... [J Virol. 2011] - PubMed result Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Host genetics plays unexpected role in dance with pathogen

The pathological effects of Yersinia pestis infection in mice varies according to the genetic strains of the infected mice. Bacteria and viruses are involved as risk factors in many diseases, and their associated genes are  often implicated in pathogen-related pathways, and in immunity.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia 

A DISC1/Viral interactome

Diagram of the HIV virus.HIV-1 Image via Wikipedia
Viral (see BLASTS) and these papers from Kanduc's lab,  and bacterial proteins (Trost et al, 2010) show extensive homology (pentapeptides or more) with all human proteins: Because of this , they are able to mimic or block the actions of their human counterparts and compete with their binding partners in interactomes. DISC1 is no exception and an example of viruses that bind to DISC1 binding partners is shown here. Many interactomes will be disrupted by viruses - there are over 1000 HIV-1/host interactions in the HIV-1/host interaction database at NCBI and nearly 400 in the herpes simplex/host database, and about 2,500 different viruses . The same goes for bacteria and other pathogens. In effect, pathogens become a part of our signalling networks and this is one way in which they contribute to diseases.

Risk factors Schizophrenia  
Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection
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Genes from Chagas parasite can transfer to humans and be passed on to children | Not Exactly Rocket Science | Discover Magazine

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year...Image of Chags's disease location via Wikipedia
Genes from Chagas parasite can transfer to humans and be passed on to children |
 More on horizontal gene transfer: This is getting to be a very hot topic.
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Endogenous Viral Etiology of Prion Diseases : Nature Precedings

 

Epstein-Barr virus infection of human brain microvessel endothelial cells: a novel role in multiple sclerosis.

The Epstein-Barr virus  is able to infect cells of the blood brain barrier, resulting in the stimulation of pro-inflammatory factors

Risk factors Multiple sclerosis 
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Eating berries may lower risk of Parkinson's

The beneficial effects may be due to flavonoids, and specifically, anthocyanins : potent antioxidants

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease Kegg pathways Parkinson's

Search Amazon.com for flavonoids  
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Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia: A case control study in a low Toxoplasma seroprevalence Mexican population.

Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia: More evidence supporting a role for this pathogen in schizophrenia

Risk factors Schizophrenia Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia
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Reduced antioxidant defense in early onset first-episode psychosis: a case-control study.

Glutathione levels were decreased in this survey: This is an important antioxidant, but it also has bactericidal and viricidal effects: There have  been a number of reports showing that the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine is of benefit in schizophrenia

Risk factors Schizophrenia  

Kegg pathways Schizophrenia
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Infectious mononucleosis-linked HLA class I single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with multiple sclerosis.

Infectious mononucleosis-linked to HLA polymorphisms: A further example of genes and risk factors acting together.

Risk factors Multiple sclerosis
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International Human Microbiome Congress - Overview | Online Registration by Cvent

VirHostNet : a virus-host system knowledgebase

A useful database of host viral interactions

Antipsychotics Rapidly Boost Cardiovascular Risk

Antipsychotics Rapidly Boost Cardiovascular Risk

Diets High In Fish Oil Have A Beneficial Effect In Patients At Risk Of Alzheimer's

Good diets can have a beneficial effect on bad genes  (APOE4) is the conclusion of this article: Prevention or delaying Alzheimer's disease, if not a cure, is possible by following  diets known to reduce the risk and by avoiding those known to increase risk ( see Alzheimer's disease risk factors

Markers of gluten sensitivity and celiac disease i... [Bipolar Disord. 2011] - PubMed result

Gliadin antibodies are found in schizophrenia, and as now shown, also in Bipolar disorder: How they might interfere with pathological pathways is shown in this article: 
In some patients,  where this is applicable, a gluten free diet may provide symptom relief.



Risk factorsBipolar disorder
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Researchers at UT Southwestern uncover preliminary new blood test to detect Alzheimer's disease

This is very important: By randomly synthesising thousands of peptoid antigens, and printing them on a chip, several antibodies circulating in the blood can be captured: The report identified antibody markers capable of predicting Alzheimer's disease. The antibody markers support the possibility that Alzheimer's disease is an autoimmune disorder Ref


Risk factors: Alzheimer's

Kegg pathways Alzheimer's 
Herpes simplex infection

Gonorrhea acquires a piece of human DNA: First evidence of gene transfer from human host to bacterial pathogen

Gonorrhea acquires a piece of human DNA: First evidence of gene transfer from human host to bacterial pathogen

This is actually not the first example as Trost et al  showed extensive homology between bacterial and human proteomes in 2010. In fact every single human protein contains bacterial motifs Trost et al, 2010; The phenomenon is universal and also applies to viruses Kanduc et al, 2008 Carter 2010

Researchers find reduced levels of an important neurotransmitter in MS

The authors found damage to noradrenaline neurones in the locus coeruleus in animal models and in Multiple Sclerosis. Noradrenaline plays an important role in the immune system

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis 
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Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors.

Modelling infection in rat mothers with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid ( a viral double-stranded RNA mimic) induces changes in the amphetamine responses of the offspring,  but only in those whose mothers lost weight due to the treatment. A nice example of  when a risk factor is a risk factor - if ............... The risk promoting ability of many risk factors, and genes, are conditioned by such effects. Problems of replication in association studies may often be related to such conditioning, and are not simply statistical quirks.

Risk factors: Schizophrenia
Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

The Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis: Genetic Evidence for the Involvement of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-Fc1.

Risk factors Multiple sclerosis  

Mitochondria, oligodendrocytes and inflammation in bipolar disorder: Evidence from transcriptome studies points to intriguing parallels with multiple

Oligodendrocyte cell loss is a feature of both Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and of course , multiple sclerosis, in fact all demyelinating conditions, and all degenerative disorders. For Bipolar disorder or schizophrenia , this aspect does not seem to be the current focus of the effort to find new drugs. The beneficial effects of  the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine in schizophrenia Berk et al, 2008 and for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder Burk et al 2008 merits attention, as glutathione protects oligodendrocytes Review.

Risk factors:Bipolar disorder : Multiple sclerosis  Schizophrenia
Kegg pathways Schizophrenia 
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New hybrid drug, derived from common spice, may protect, rebuild brain cells after stroke

New hybrid drug, derived from common spice, may protect, rebuild brain cells after stroke Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Study examines relationship between autoimmune skin disease and neurologic disorders

Study examines relationship between autoimmune skin disease and neurologic disorders Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

A new way to attack pathogens

A new way to attack pathogens

SLU research implicates natural toxin as triggering Parkinson's disease

DOPAL (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde ) is a breakdown product of dopamine and may be responsible for the death of dopamine neurones; See the red spot in this KEGG pathway

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease
  Kegg pathways  Parkinson's
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Lack of Vitamin D Affects Lung Function | Medical News and Health Information

Global Metabolite Profiling: The Fast-Track for Functional GenomicsThe New York Academy of Sciences

A Webinar from the New York Academy of Sciences

Omega 3's -- More Evidence For Their Benefit - Science News - redOrbit

Omega 3 fatty acids have many benefits, including their use in retinopathy. Here some mechanisms are elucidated including an ability to stimulate angiogenesis, mediated by a 5-lipoxygenase generated metabolite 4-HDHA . The PPAR-gamma receptor is a target of the actions of  5-lipoxygenase

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia 
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The metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.

The metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and Alzheimer's ... [Rev Invest Clin. 2010 Jul-Aug] - PubMed result Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

Genome-wide association analysis of age at onset and psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder.

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year...Image via Wikipedia
This mega-analysis of almost 3000 controls and cases  failed to find ANY   SNP  related to age at onset or psychosis in Bipolar disorder
The map shows the global distribution of bipolar disorder disability. 
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Cannabis linked to earlier onset of psychosis

Cannabis linked to earlier onset of psychosis Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Independently Linked to Lower MS Risk

Several studies have linked sunlight and vitamin D to multiple sclerosis and this links both independently

When Stress Is Good - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

Fast blood flow protects against atherosclerosis and this article discusses ways to harness this to therapy

New link between genes and stress response, depression: Neuropeptide Y

New explanation for heart-healthy benefits of chocolate

It appears that chocolate boosts HDL or " good cholesterol " levels and decreases LDL or " bad cholesterol" levels. Oats also decrease LDL - an alternative to drugs and less risky


Search Amazon.com for cholesterol diet
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Antipsychotics for schizophrenia associated with subtle loss in brain volume

Risk factors Schizophrenia
Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

Enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes strengthened - Health News - NHS Choices

Hypercholesterolemia in rats impairs the cholinergic system and leads to memory deficits.

Loss of cholinergic neurones is one of the key pathological features of Alzheimer's disease: In this study hypercholesterolemia in rats caused memory impairment and in the brain,  cholinergic dysfunction, inflammation, changes in beta amyloid and tau and  microbleedings, closely resembling the pathology in Alzheimer's disease.
.
Risk factors: Alzheimer's  Kegg pathways Alzheimer's




Search Amazon.com for Cholesterol diet
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How the body’s frontline defense mechanism determines if a substance is a microbe

This paper describes how the complement system discriminates between host and self chemicals


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Boosting body's immune response may hold key to HIV cure

This effect is mediated by interleukin 7 which boosted the immune system allowing mice to clear the virus.