Exposure To Worm Infection In The Womb May Protect Against Eczema, Study Suggests

More on the benefits of the microbiome, this time regarding worm infection ( in this case Schistosoma mansoni ). Although eczema is perhaps preferable, this illustrates the power of microbes and parasites to influence diseases.



Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome 
 
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Nutritional Omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid mediated neuronal functions

This intensive and long study showed impressive effects of dietary omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain function , impairing synaptic function via cannabinoid receptors. Such large effects of diet have important implications in psychiatric and neurological disorders .

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis  CFTR interactome
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Sleep and fatigue in mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68.

This study shows that viral infection in mice can produce signs of fatigue: Animal models like this will help to resolve how.

murine gammaherpesvirus 68. 
 

Risk factors: Chronic fatigue

Genes to Cognition Online

Genes2cognition: A very useful site highlighting the relevance of proteomics to many human diseases: also includes an interactive 3-D model of the brain.




Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Link to increased atherosclerosis risk in lupus patients uncovered

This reserarch showed that interferon alpha caused lipid uptake and foam cell formation that are important triggers of atherosclerotic plaques. Interferon alpha is involved in pathogen defence so could this also be a link between the viruses and bacteria implicated in atherosclerosis and plaque formation ?
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Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel finding

Brains from ovariectomised rats can display features of Alzheimer's disease including beta-amyloid deposition and tau phophorylation. Young coconut juice was able to reduce beta-amyloid deposition.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection 
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Adult ADHD Linked to Increased Risk for Lewy Body Dementia

ADHD Linked to Increased Risk for Lewy Body Dementia
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Potential 'cure' for type 1 diabetes?

The actions of insulin and glucagon oppose each other and if glucagon is knocked down , insulin is not needed in diabetic mice. This raises the possibility of using glucagon antagonists in Type 1 diabetes





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Little-known growth factor enhances memory, prevents forgetting in rats, January 26, 2011 News Release - National Institutes of Health (NIH)

The growth factor involved is IGF2 and it passes the blood brain barrier.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Stimulating the brain's immune response may provide treatment for Alzheimer's disease

Loss of CD45 led to dramatically increased microglial inflammation. This occurs in the Alzheimer's disease brain and may play a role in neuronal destruction . See also plaques and tangles and the immune network in relation to herpes simplex.

Risk factors: Alzheimer'sKegg pathways Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection
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Food-borne bacteria causes potentially fatal heart infection

Listeria monocytogenes is the culprit and is commonly found in soft cheeses and chilled ready-to-eat products. It does not always cause listeriosis or disease and only causes heart problems in some (genes and resistance ?)
This does however illustrate the importance of pathogens in disease - sometime more than risk factors and able to cause.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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RIKEN : Discovery of "probiotic transporters" unlocks secrets of infection-preventive bifidobacteria

Bifidobacteria and probiotics are claimed to have many beneficial effects  and this study showed that they increase defensive measures aginst  other bacteria.
Perhaps we soon won't need drugs to cure our ills , taking selected bugs instead.


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Mayo Clinic Researchers Find Eating More Monounsaturated And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Decrease Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mayo Clinic Researchers Find Eating More Monounsaturated And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Decrease Mild Cognitive Impairment  

This is in line with studies in Alzheimer's disease showing that saturated fat increases and polyunsaturated fat dereases risk, as do fish comsumption and the mediterranean diet.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

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Dysregulation of chemo-cytokine production in schizophrenic patients versus healthy controls.

Dysregulation of the chemokine  cytokine network hints at immune system problems possibly related to infection. These networks are both genetically and pathologically  disrupted .

Risk factorsSchizophrenia Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia 

New circadian timer? - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences


This study showed a chemical circadian rhythm in red blood cells, which lack DNA or transcriptional material. Peroxiredoxins help to inactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are reduced and oxidised on a 24 hr cycle.

CLOCK genes are not the only mediators of circadian cycles 
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Peroxiredoxin by TimVickers at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

The Downside of Antioxidants - Newsweek

Well, basically they don't work and may even be harmful.
There is a cogent argument that explains why antioxidants will not work. Free radicals are so reactive that they "radicalise" whatever they bump into first, be that DNA, lipid or protein. The total cellular concentrations of these is so high that adding a few micromolar of an antioxidant can not make any difference - unless it is delivered to the exact spot. That said, it is important to keep the body's antioxidant defense mechanisms in trim and to ensure that vitamin levels and such-like are adequate (and not excessive). They know where to go and can get on with the job.  As this Cochrane report stated, vitamin overdosage can be harmful.

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An activated set point of T-cell and monocyte inflammatory networks in recent-onset schizophrenia patients involves both pro- and anti-inflammatory fo

An activated set point of T-cell and monocyte inflammatory networks in recent-onset schizophrenia patients involves both pro- and anti-inflammatory forces.




Risk factorsAutism : Bipolar disorder : Schizophrenia  

Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia genes (many immune-related pathways)
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When the human viral infectome and diseasome networks collide: towards a systems biology platform for the aetiology of human diseases.

Viruses interact with many human proteins, and in doing so interfere with signalling networks and interactomes. This in silico analysis involved 110 viruses and uncovered several disease-relevant pathways. Viruses are risk factors in most human diseases, and this type of analysis will help to explain how and why. Very important.


For example Herpes simplex infection pathways

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Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and Alzheimer's disease: a connection to remember?

Chlamydia pneumoniae 

Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection

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Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA-3 binds to vitamin D receptor and blocks activation of its target genes.

Both the Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D deficiency have been implicated in multiple sclerosis, while the vitamin D receptor has been resported as a susceptibility gene (MSGENE). A neat example of gene/pathogen/environment interactions.

 Risk factors Multiple sclerosis


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Prospects of Statins in Parkinson Disease.

Statin use negatively correlates with the incidence of Parkinson's disease and statins are effective in the MPTP model (Selley, 2005) : They may have clinical potential in Parkinson's disease

Risk factors: Parkinson's disease  
Kegg pathways  Parkinson's 
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Glutamate and ATP signalling in white matter pathology.

These toxic pathways mediated by NMDA, kainate and AMPA glutamate receptors and P2X7 purinergic receptors are central to the pathology of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating conditions such as schizophrenia


Risk factors Multiple sclerosis  Schizophrenia  
Kegg pathways  Schizophrenia 
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Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and progressive disability of multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis associated retrovirus was associated with a significantly greater rate of relapse-unrelated unremitting disability  

Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis

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Defense mechanism against bacteria and fungi deciphered

Defense mechanism against bacteria and fungi deciphered Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Fat associated with chemical changes in DNA that may help explain obesity-related disease

Fat associated with chemical changes in DNA that may help explain obesity-related disease Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Genetic sequencing alone doesn't offer a true picture of human disease, research suggests

This should come as no surprise: Whether or not a gene conveys risk depends on so many other variables, including other genes and environmental risk factors - and on what the gene-encoded protein does.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Fighting the fight for healthy teeth

This is important bacause of the links between gum disease and atherosclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. There are few pharmacological ways of tackling gum disease.

It now turns out that odontoblasts are involved in the immune network producing antimicrobial peptides (alpha-defensins) chemokines, which recruit white blood cells to the site of infection, and pro-inflammatory signalling proteins (Interleukins IL-1β, IL-1α, and the cytokine TNF-alpha) which initiate an inflammatory response.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's
Kegg pathways Alzheimer's

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Bacterial peptides are intensively present throughout the human proteome

The authors identified  47,610 total identical nonapeptide bacterial/human matches disseminated through 10,701 human proteins. Bacterial mimicry of human propteins is very extensive and crucial to our understanding of the roles of pathogens and the microbiome in human diseases.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Adult ADHD Significantly Increases Risk Of Common Form Of Dementia

Adult ADHD Significantly Increases Risk Of Common Form Of Dementia Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

The Cell: An Image Library - Explore the Cell Image Library by Cell Process

Some beautifil pictures of  the cell in relation to different biological processes
 

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Human Microbiome Project at NIH

Human Microbiome Project  

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome 

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The human microbiome in multiple sclerosis: pathogenic or protective constituents?

Microbiome


Risk factors: Multiple sclerosis Kegg pathways Herpes simplex infection

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Bright Light Treatment May Improve Nonseasonal Depressive Symptoms

This is directly related to the last post on the CLOCK gene

Search Amazon.com for light therapy 

Knockdown of Clock in the ventral tegmental area through RNA interference results in a mixed state of mania and depression-like behavior.

This is very interesting, showing that knockdown of a single gene , CLOCK , in the ventral tegmental area
produces something very like manic depression, or cycling bipolar disorder.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome 

 
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Antiviral Agents in Alzheimer's Disease: Hope for the Future?: Antiviral Treatment for AD?

Antiviral Agents in Alzheimer's Disease: Hope for the Future?: Antiviral Treatment for AD?  

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Herpes simplex infection

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Measles' natural nemesis: Cells infected by measles virus pull out a heavy weapon in the form of the enzyme ADAR1

Measles' natural nemesis: Cells infected by measles virus pull out a heavy weapon in the form of the enzyme ADAR1  

Kegg pathways  Herpes simplex infection

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Induction of Colonic Regulatory T Cells by Indigenous Clostridium Species | Science/AAAS

Gut bacteria control T cells  and the oral inoculation of Clostridium in young  mice produced resistance to colitis in adult mice . A study showing the importance of our microbiomes in controlling disease.


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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The atherogenicbacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis evades circulating phagocytes by adhering to erythrocytes.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the causes of gum disease which has been linked to both atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease: The bacteria stick to complement component C3 and in doing so interfere with complement receptor 1 on red blood cells. Herpes simplex and influenza viruses also bind to complement receptor 1 Refs
A neat link between susceptibility genes (CR1) and risk factors

Risk factors: Alzheimer's :
Kegg pathways
Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection 
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Modeling the Cumulative Genetic Risk for Multiple Sclerosis from Genome Wide Association Data.

GWAS pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in immunity, cell adhesion, cell communication/signaling, nervous system development, and neuronal signaling, including ionotropic glutamate receptors

Risk factors: : Multiple sclerosis 
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The receptor subunits generating NMDA receptor mediated currents in oligodendrocytes.

NMDA receptor  oligodendrocytes.

Perhaps related to the role of the NMDA receptor and oligodendrocyte cell loss  in schizophrenia



Risk factors: Autism : Bipolar disorder : Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Schizophrenia

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Cholesterol and LDL Relate to Neuritic Plaques and to APOE4 Presence but Not to Neurofibrillary Tangles.

Cholesterol and LDL Relate to Neuritic Plaques and not neurofibrillary tangles

Risk factors: Alzheimer's Kegg pathways Alzheimer's  Herpes simplex infection
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Depression + Diabetes Equals Trouble for Women | Psych Central News

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia  
Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Scientists fight bugs with poo | Reuters

Strange but true, and very important.  Faecal transplants have had a remarkable success in Clostridium difficile infection and in ulcerative colitis , a form or irritable bowel disease:  It's all about the right kind of bacterial flora in the gut, and the development of synthetic faeces containg appropriate species is being considered.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome
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Can Weight Be Related To Recurrent Depression And Its Treatment With Antidepressants Drugs?

Antidepressants are not without side effects, obesity being one of them. Could these lead to problems in later life ?
 
Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Drinking behavior and the development of hypothalamic lesions from aspartame ingestion in water-restricted weanling mice.

This is an old paper but relevant to the current problems of obesity. In young water-restricted weanling rats the feeding of concentrated aspartame produced lesions in the arcuate nucleus, the area of the brain that controls appetite.
In older weaned rats aspartame decreased body weight but also had effects on the arcuate nucleus , where it decreased neuropeptide Y levels Beck et al, 2002
The concentrations of aspartame are high, but this heavily used sweetener is not without toxic effects that directly affect appetite and body weight, particularly in the young. As with many effects, this is likely to be modified by genes and other risk factors.  Its introduction to the market was fraught with contention Wikipedia
Risk factors: Childhood obesity:

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Prenatal lipopolisaccharide treatment enhances MK-801 - induced psychotomimetic effects in rats.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Alzheimer's Disease: A Pathogenetic Autoimmune Disorder Caused by Herpes Simplex in a Gene-Dependent Manner

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Fruit and vegetable concentrate decreases number of days with severe cold symptoms

Fruit and vegetable concentrate decreases number of days with severe cold symptoms Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Prozac may improve stroke recovery - Health News - NHS Choices

Prozac increased motor skills in stroke patients, a novel and useful application of an available drug

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia  
Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

On-Demand Webinars - Seahorse Bioscience

Free webinars in many interesting fields


Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia

Kegg pathways Alzheimer's Parkinson's Schizophrenia Herpes simplex infection Cystic fibrosis CFTR interactome

Variety, the spice of immunology - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences

Most immunology experiments are done in relatively clean laboratory animals. The picture in the wild is different, where immunological parameters may differ according to ecological conditions. The same applies to man where autoimmunity may vary according to exposure to different parasites and other pathogens.There is a lot to explore in this burgeoning field.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia
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Widespread horizontal gene transfer from double-stranded RNA viruses to eukaryotic nuclear genomes.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia

Scientists find the 'master switch' for key immune cells in inflammatory diseases

IRF5 ( interferon regulatory factor 5) is the molecule: It controls whether macrophages promote or inhibit inflammation.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia 
 
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Bioactive compounds in berries can reduce high blood pressure

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia

Why coffee protects against diabetes

Coffe upregulates the expression of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) which regulates  testosterone and estrogen, which have long been thought to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Schizophrenia

Study Probes Obesity Link To Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia

Risk factors: Alzheimer's : Autism : Bipolar disorder : Childhood obesity: Chronic fatigue: Schizophrenia 


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